1.Purpose of Testing
No matter how capably we write programs，it is clear front the variety of possible errors that we should check to insure that our modules are coded correctly.Many programmers view testing as a demonstration that their programs perform properly.However，the idea of demonstrating correctness is really the reverse of what testing is all about.We test a program in order to demonstrate the existence of an error.Because our goal is to discover errors，we can consider a test successful only when an error is discovered.Once an error is found，“debugging”or error correction is the process of determining what causes the error and of making changes to the system so that the error no longer exists.
2.Stages of Testing
In the development of a large system，testing involves several stages.First，each program
module is tested as a single program，usually isolated from the other programs in the system.Such testing，known as module testing or unit-testing，verifies that the module functions properly with the types of input expected from studying the module design.Unit testing is done in a controlled environment whenever possible so that the test team can feed a predetermined set of data to the module being tested and observe what output data are produced.In addition，the test team checks the internal data structures，the logic，and the boundary conditions for the input and output data.
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