In science the meaning of the word "explain" suffers with civilization's every step in search of reality. Science cannot really explain electricity, magnetism, and gravitation;their effects can be measured and predicted, but of their nature no more is known to the modern scientist than to Thales who first speculated on the electrification of amber. Most contemporary physicists reject the notion that man can ever discover what these mysterious forces "really" are. Electricity, Bertrand Russell says, "is not a thing, like St. Paul's Cathedral; it is a way in which things behave. When we have told how things behave when they are electrified, and under what circumstances they are electrified, we have told all there is to tell." Until recently scientists would have disapproved of such an idea. Aristotle, for example, whose natural science dominated western thought for two thousand years, believed that man could arrive at an understanding of reality by reasoning from selfevident principles. He felt, for example, that it is a self-evident principle that everything in the universe has its proper place, hence one can deduce that objects fall to the ground because that's where they belong, and smoke goes up because that's where it belongs. The goal of Aristotelian science was to explain why things happen. Modern science was born when Galileo began trying to explain how things happen and thus originated the method of controlled experiment which now forms the basis of scientific investigation.
41．Bertrand Russell's notion about electricity is ______.
A．disapproved of by most modern scientists
B．in agreement with Aristotle's theory of self-evident principles
C．in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward "how" things happen
D．in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward "why" things happen
42．The passage says that until recently scientists disagreed with the idea that ______.
A．there are self-evident principles
B．there are mysterious forces in the universe
C．man cannot discover what forces "really" are
D．we can discover why things behave as they do
43．The expression "speculated on" (Line 4) means ______.
C．expected D．engaged in buying and selling