2020考研英语一真题及答案

考研英语 责任编辑:胡陆 2019-12-24
摘要:2020年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试已经于12月21日结束,以下是2020年考研英语一真题答案,详情如下。更多相关资讯,请关注希赛网考研英语频道。

2020年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题及答案

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark[A],[B],[C],or[D]on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

Even if families don't sit down to eat together as frequently as before, millions of Britons will nonetheless have got a share this weekend of one of that nation s great traditions:the Sunday roast.1____a cold winter's day,few culinary pleasures can 2____it.Yet as we report now.

The food police are determined our health. That this 3____should be rendered yet another quality pleasure 4___to damage our health.The Food Standards Authority (FSA) has 5 a public worming about the risks of a compound called acrylamide that forms in some foods cooked 6____high temperatures.This means that people should 7____ crisping their roast potatoes,reject thin- crust pizzas and only_ 8____toast their bread.But where is the evidence to support such alarmist advice? 9 studies have shown that acrylamide can cause neurological damage in mice,there is no 10____ evidence that it causes cancer in humans.

Scientists say the compound is 11____to cause cancer but have no hard scientific proof 12____the precautionary principle it could be argued that it is 13____to follow the FSA advice.14____,it was rumoured that smoking caused cancer for years before the evidence was found to prove a 15____.

Doubtless a piece of boiled beef can always be 16 up on Sunday alongside some steamed vegetables,without the Yorkshire pudding and no wine. But would life be worth living? 17____,the FSA says it is not telling people to cut out roast foods 18____,but reduce their lifetime intake.However its 19____risks coming a cross as being pushy and overprotective.Constant health scares just 20____ with one listening.

1.[A]In  [B]Towards  [C]On [D]Till

2.[A] match  [B]express  [C]satisfy  [D]influence :

3.[A]patience  [B]enjoyment  [C]surprise  [D]concern

4.[A]intensified  [B]privileged  [C]compelled  [D]guaranteed

5.[A]isued  [B]received  [C]compelled  [D] guaranteed

6.[A]under  [B]at  [C]for  [D]by

7.[A]forget  [B]regret  [C]finish  [D]avoid

8.[A]partially  [B]regular  [C]easily  [D]intally

9.[A]Unless  [B]Since  [C]If [D] While 

10.[A]secondary  [B]external  [C]conclusive  [D]negative

11.[A]insufficient  [B]bound  [C]likely  [D] slow

12.[A]On the basis of  [B]At the cost of  [C]In addition to [D]In contrast to

13.[A]interesting  [B]advisable  [C]urgent  [D]fortunate

14.[A]As usual [B]In particular  [C]By definition  [D]After all

15.[A]resemblance  [B]combination  [C]connection  [D]patterm

16.[A]made  [B]served  [C]saved  [D]used

17.[A]To be fair  [B]For instance  [C]To be brief  [D]In general

18.[A]reluctantly  [B]entirely  [C]gradually  [D]carefully

19.[A]promise  [B]experience  [C]campaign  [D]competition

20.[A]follow up  [B]pick up  [C]open up  [D]end up .

完型填空答案解析:

今年完形填空的难度较前两年略难,虽然话题不难理解,但不易把握上下文的线索。需要对文章内容有全面和精准的把握才能做好。主要内容讲的是虽然烤肉之类的食品是会对健康带来危害,我们对这些健康方面的危言耸听也不可过度恐慌。属于比较生活的话题。下面我们一起来看一下答案及解析。

1.【答案】C On

【解析】此处考察介词词义辨析。On a cold winter's day意思是在一个寒冷冬日。介词on后加具体的某一天;in后加一段时间,例如in winter,in 2002;toward表方向,不与时间搭配;till意思是直到,例如till tomorrow,till next week,与句意不符。故正确答案为on。

2.【答案】A match

【解析】此处考察动词词义辨析。文章的首段首句提到:即使家庭成员不太可能经常坐下来一起吃饭,但数百万英国人将在这个周末参加这个国家最伟大的传统活动之一:星期日烤肉。On a cold winter's day, few culinary pleasures can __2__it. 在一个寒冷的冬日,很少有什么乐趣与之匹配。match 匹配。express表达。satisfy满足,满意;确信;符合。influence影响。

3.【答案】B enjoyment

【解析】此处考察上下文逻辑关系。上文说到星期日烤肉是一项开心的活动。后文Yet进行语义转折:然而正如现在报道的那样,食品卫生部门认为这种 3 会导致另一种有罪的快乐 4 损害我们的健康。enjoyment乐趣与上文pleasures和下文another pleasures互为关联信息。patience耐心,耐性。surprise惊喜。concern关心。

4.【答案】D guaranteed

【解析】 此处考察非谓语动词做后置定语的用法。空格所在句指出:这种快乐会导致另一种有罪的快乐 4 损害我们的健康。 guaranteed有保证的,一定的,填入空格处意为:这种快乐会导致另一种有罪的快乐,肯定会损害我们的健康。 intensified增强,加剧; privileged享有特权,专用,特许;compelled强迫。

5.【答案】A issued

【解析】此处考察词义辨析。The Food Standards Authority (FSA) has __5__ a public warning... 食品标准管理局 一项公开的警告... issued发表,发布,发出;received接收,接到; ignored忽视,忽略;canceled取消。issued a public warning发出一项公开的警告符合文意。

6.【答案】B at

【解析】此处考察介词辨析。in some foods cooked __6__ high temperatures. under在...下面;for为了;因为;对于; by在…旁边; 通过; 由于; 经过。

7.【答案】D avoid

【解析】此处考察上下文逻辑关系。7空句首this mean代词this指代上文高温炙烤的食物里会有化学复合物有害人体身体健康。所以下文提出建议人们应该 7 炸土豆,不吃薄皮披萨并且...7空同时也与reject构成语义并列的关系,故avoid正确。forget忘记;regret 后悔;finish完成。

8.【答案】A partially

【解析】此处考察词义辨析+上下文语境。...and only__8__ toast their bread. 8空前文说到建议人们不吃炸土豆,薄皮披萨或者只是 8 烤面包。partially部分地,偶尔地;regularly有规律地; easily 容易地;initially最初地。故A选项正确。

9.【答案】D While

【解析】此处考察上下文逻辑关系+逻辑连接词辨析。 __9__ studies have shown that acrylamide can cause neurological damage in mice, there is no __10__ evidence that it causes cancer in humans. 9 研究表明丙烯酰胺可引起小鼠神经损伤,但是没有 10 证据表明它会导致人类患癌症。前后句为转折/对比/让步的逻辑关系,故选择while表示虽然,尽管。Unless除非,表条件的逻辑关系;Since因为,表因果逻辑;If如果,表条件的逻辑关系。

10.【答案】C conclusive

【解析】此处考察词义辨析+上下文语境。 9 研究表明丙烯酰胺可引起小鼠神经损伤,但是没有 10 证据表明它会导致人类患癌症。conclusive决定性的; 令人信服的; 确凿的

secondary第二的,中等的;间接的; external外面的,外部的; 表面上的; 外用的; 外国的; negative消极的,否认的。

11.【答案】C likely

【解析】此处考察固定搭配。be likely to 可能。insufficient 不足的,不够的;bound捆绑的,束缚的,有义务的;slow缓慢的。

12.【答案】A On the basis of

【解析】此处考察短语辨析+上下文逻辑。__12__ the precautionary principle, it could be argued that it is __13__ to follow the FSA advice. 12 预防性原则,可以说遵循FSA的建议是 13 。 On the basis of以...为基础,根据,按照;At the cost of以...为代价;In addition to除...之外; In contrast to与之相对,相反。

13.【答案】B advisable

【解析】此处考察形容词词义辨析。 根据预防性原则,可以说遵循FSA的建议是 13 。interesting有趣的; advisable明智的,可取的; urgent急迫的; fortunate侥幸的,幸运的。

14.【答案】D After all

【解析】考察逻辑关系。原文中上一句说“基于“预防原则”,可以认为最好遵循FSA的建议”。本句说“在有证据证明吸烟与癌症之间的联系之前,吸烟导致癌症的传言就已经流传多年了。结合选项分析,As usual像往常一样,In particular尤其,特别,By definition根据定义,After all 毕竟,只有After all符合文意。

15.【答案】C connection

【解析】本题考察动宾搭配,结合语境和句子成分理解,这里的名词放在prove“证明”后面,整体处在不定式中做主语补足语说明主语evidence,这里“证据”应该是证明出来(吸烟和肺癌)有联系的,故选择connection。Resemblance相似,combination结合,pattern模式,均不符合。

16.【答案】B served

【解析】本题考察主谓搭配,此处为被动语态,和主语a piece of boiled beef 构成实际上的“动宾关系”,句意“毫无疑问,一片煮熟的牛肉总能在周日和一些蒸蔬菜一起__16__”。这里served up 表示“上菜,端上”正和文意。而其他选项made制作,saved节省,used使用,均不符合。

17.【答案】A To be fair

【解析】本题考察主谓搭配,上一句说“但是生命值得过下去吗?”本句话说,“英FSA表示,它并没有告诉人们....不吃烘焙食品”,可见后文并没有对上文进行举例(for instance)或总结(To be brief)或表示经常发生的事情(in general),故,应该选择顺承关系的To be fair。

18.【答案】B entirely

【解析】此处考察副词的修饰关系。本句话句意为“英FSA表示,它并没有告诉人们不吃烘焙食品__18__”。结合各选项分析:reluctantly不情愿地,entirely完全地,gradually逐渐地,carefully小心谨慎地,能跟前面的否定词not呼应使用表示一种部分否定的,只能是entirely才合适,not ...entirely表示“并未完全...”。

19.【答案】C campaign

【解析】本题考察主谓搭配。根据原文语境“然而,他们(FSA)的...有风险给人一种‘劝诱式’保姆的感觉” ,答案campaign表示“(开展的)运动,活动”放在这里最合适。promise承诺,experience经历或经验,competition竞争,均不能体现本文中FSA所做行为的代称。

20.【答案】D end up

【解析】考察动宾搭配,这里的句义是“持续不断的健康威胁__20__却没有人在听。”这里想强调太多的的对健康的恐慌的最终结果,只有“结束,以...告终”这个含义最符合,所以选择end up, 而follow up跟踪,坚持完成,pick up捡起,拾起,偶然学到,open up打开,开发,均不符合文义。

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below cach text by choosing[A],[B],[C],or[D].Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(40 points)

Text 1

A group of labour MPs,among them Yvette Cooper,are bringing in the new year with a call to institute a UK“town of culture"award.The proposal is that it should sit alongside the existing city of culture title,which was held by Hull in 2017 and has been awarded to Coventry for zoz1.Cooper and her colleagues argue that the success of the crown for Hull,where it brought in 220m of investment and an avalanche of arts,out not to be confined to cities.Britain' town,it is true are not prevented from applying, but they generally lack the resources to put together a bit to beat their bigger competitions.A town of culture award could,it is argued,become an annual event,attracting funding and creating jobs.

Some 1might see the proposal as a boo by prize for the fact that Britain is no longer be able to apply for the much more prestigious title of Furopean capital of culture,a sough after award bagged by Glasgow in 1990 and Liverpool in 2008.A cynic might speculate that the UK is on the verge of disappearing into an endless fever of self-celebration in its desperation to reinvent itself for the post-Brexit world: after town of culture, who knows that will follow-village of culture?Suburb of culture? Hamlet of culture?

It is also wise lo recall that such titles are not a cure-al1.A badly run“year of culture"washes in and out ofa place like the tide, bringing prominence for a spell but leaving no lasting benefits to the community.The really successful holders of such titles are those that do a great deal more than fill hotel bedrooms and bring in high profile arts events and good press for a year.They transform the aspirations of the people who live there;they nudge the self-image of the city into a bolder and more optimistic light.It is hard to get right, and requires a remarkable degree of vision, as well as cooperation between city authorities,the private sector,community.groups and cultural organisations.But it can be done:Glasgow's year as European capital of culture can certainly be seen as one of complex series of factors that have turned the city into the power of art, music and theatre that it remains today.

A“town of culture" could be not just about the arts but about honouring a town's peculiarities-helping sustain its high street, supporting local facilities and above all celebrating its people and turn it into action.

21.Cooper and her colleagues argue that a“town of culture" award could_____

[A] consolidate the town-city ties in Britain.

[B] promote cooperation among Britain's towns.

[C] increase the economic strength of Britain's towns.

[D] focus Britain's limited resources on cultural events.

22.According to Paragraph 2, the proposal might be regarded by some as______

[A]a sensible compromise.

[B]a self-deceiving attempt.

[C]an eye catching bonus

[D]an inaccessible target.

23.The author suggests that a title holder is successful onlyif it_____

[A]endeavours to maintain its image.

[B]meets the aspirations of its people.

[C]brings its local arts to prominence.

[D]commits to its long-term growth.

24.Glasgow is mentioned in Paragraph 3 to present_____

[A]a contrasting case.

(B]a supporting example.

[C]a background story.

[D]a related topic.

25.What is the author 's attitude towards the proposal?

[A]Skeptical.

[B]Objective.

[C]Favourable.

[D]Critical.

Text1答案解析

21 C 这道题是细节题。题干问库珀和她的同事们认为“文化之城”这一奖项可能会怎样可以定位在第一段第三句:“Cooper and her colleagues argue that the success of the crown for Hull,……” “赫尔之冠”的成功并不局限于城市,它为赫尔带来了2.2亿欧元的投资和大量艺术作品。英国的城镇,确实没有被阻止申请,但他们通常缺乏资源来凑齐一点来击败他们更大的竞争对手。有人认为,“文化之城”奖可以成为一项年度活动,吸引资金并创造就业机会。所以能看出答案是C. 增强英国城镇的经济实力。

22 B a self-deceiving attempt

该题是推断题, 题干问:根据第二段,这一提议或许会被一些人认为是…….。 可以定位在第二段第一句“Some might see the proposal as a boo by prize for the fact that……”“有些人可能会把这个提议看作是一个嘘声,因为英国已经不能再申请更有声望的欧洲文化之都的称号了……” 能看出来有些人是持反面态度的。很多人不认识boo,但是也能从后面的on the verge of disappearing into an endless fever of self-celebration in its desperation to reinvent itself for,在绝望地为英国退欧后的世界重塑形象之际,英国即将消失在一场无休止的自我庆祝热潮之中. 接下来几个反问句,能看出来是一种自我欺骗的尝试,所以选择B。

23 D commits to its long-term growth

该题也是细节题, 题干问:作者认为这个头衔的持有者是成功的只要它……可以定位到第三段第三句,这些头衔真正成功的持有者,是那些除了为酒店带来收入、带来引人注目的艺术活动和一年的良好报道之外,还做了很多事情的人。它们转变了当地居民的愿望;他们将城市的自我形象推向更大胆、更乐观的一面。所以能看出只要他把致力于乡村的长期发展中,这个头衔就会是成功的。

24 A. a contrasting case

这题是写作目的题, 题干说:第3段提到格拉斯哥是为了展现什么。可以定位到第三段倒数第一句。可以看到前面有明显的BUT, 知道和前面的意思成相反。“这个问题很难解决,需要高度的远见卓识,也需要城市当局、私营部门、社区团体和文化组织之间的合作。但这是可以做到的:格拉斯哥作为欧洲文化之都的一年,可以被看作是一系列复杂的因素之一,这些因素把这座城市变成了艺术、音乐和戏剧的力量,直到今天。”

25 D favourable

这题是作者态度题,问作者对于这个建议的态度。第一段是提出该建议。第二段是一些人认为这个建议有点吹嘘。而只有最后一段能看出作者对此建议的态度,“一个“文化之城”不仅仅是艺术之城,而且要尊重一个城市的特色——帮助维持它的商业街,支持当地的设施,最重要的是赞美它的人民,并将其转化为行动。”所以能看出是积极赞成的态度。

Text 2

Scientific publishing has long been a licence to print money. Scientists need joumals in which to publish their research, so they will supply the articles without monetary reward.Other scientists perform the specialised work of peer review also for free,because it is a central element in the acquisition of status and the production of scientific knowledge.

With the content of papers secured for free,the publisher needs only find a market for its journal.Until this century, university libraries were not very price sensitive.Scientific publishers routinely report profit margins approaching 40% on their operations,at a time when the rest of the publishing industry is in an existential crisis.

The Dutch giant Elsevier,which claims to publish 25% of the scientific papers produced in the world, made profits of more than f900m last year,while UK universities alone spent more than f210m in 2016 to enable researchers to access their own publicly funded research;both figures seem to rise unstoppably despite increasingly desperate efforts to change them.The most drastic, and thoroughly illegal, reaction has been the emergence of Sci-Hub,a kind of global photocopier for scientific papers,set up in 2012, which now claims to offer access to every paywalled article published since 2015.The success of Sci-Hub, which relies on researchers passing on copies they have themselves legally accessed,shows the legal ecosystem has lost legitimacy among is users and must be transformed so that it works for all participants.

In Britain the move towards open access publishing has been driven by funding bodies.In some ways it has been very successful.More than half of all Brtish scientific research is now published under open access terms: either freely available from the moment of publication,or paywalled for a year or more so that the publishers can make a profit before being placed on general release.

Yet the new system has not worked out any cheaper for the universities.Publishers have responded to the demand that they make their product free to readers by charging their writers fees to cover the costs of preparing an article. These range from around £500 to S5,000.A report last year pointed out that the costs both of subscriptions and of these“article preparation costs" had been steadily rising at a rate above inflation.In some ways the scientific publishing model resembles the economy of the social internet:labour is provided free in exchange for the hope of status,while huge profits are made by a few big firms who run the market places.In both cases,we need a rebalancing of power.

26.Scientific publishing is seen as“a licence to print money" partly because______

[A]its funding has enjoyed a steady increase.

[B]its marketing strategy has been successful.

[C]its payment for peer review is reduced.

[D]its content acquisition costs nothing.

27.According to Paragraphs 2 and 3,scientific publishers Elsevier have_____

[A]thrived mainly on university libraries.

[B]gone through an existential crisis.

[C]revived the publishing industry.

[D]financed researchers generously.

28.How does the author feel about the success of Sci-Hub?______

[A]Relieved.

[B]Puzzled.

[C]Concermed.

[D]Encouraged.

29.It can be learmned from Paragraphs 5 and 6 that open access terms_____

[A]allow publishers some room to make money.

[B]render publishing much easier for scientists.

[C]reduce the cost of publication subtantially

[D]free universities from financial burdens.

30.Which of the following characteristics the scientific publishing model?______

[A]Trial subscription is offered.

[B]Labour triumphs over status.

[C]Costs are well controlled.

[D]The few feed on the many.

Text 2 答案解析

26, 细节题 D its content acquisition cost nothing

根据题干中关键词a licence to print money because ,定位到第一段第二句,其他科学家也免费进行同行评议的专门工作,因为它是获得地位和生产科学知识的核心要素。正确选项D,acquisition原词, for free替换选项中的,cost nothing.

27, 细节题 A thrived mainly on universities libraries

根据题干关键词Elsevier定位到第三段第一句话,The Dutch giant Elsevier, ....made profits of more than 490m last year. while UK universities alone spent more than 210m in 2016,该公司去年利润超过4.9亿英镑 然而仅英国大学在2016年就花费了超过2.1亿英镑。正确选项A 主要依靠大学图书馆 为定位句的同意表达

28态度题 B concerned

根据题干中关键词Sci-Hub的成功定位到第四段第二句, The success of Sci- Hub, .... have themselves legally accessed shows the legal ecosystem has lost legitimacy among its users and must be transformed so that it works for all participants这表明法律生态系统在其用户中已经失去了合法性,必须进行改造,以便为所有参与者服务. 可见作者对于Sci- Hub的成功采取否定态度,正确选项B concerned担忧,担心。A relieved宽慰的,C puzzled困惑的属错误选项, D encouraged鼓励的,正反混淆

29推断题 A allow publishers some room to make money

根据题干关键词open access定位到第四段,最后一句 ...so that the publishers can make a profit before...,合理收取费用是未来出版商能够获利,A选项为同义替换。B render publishing much easier for scientists使发表对科学家来说容易得多 .C reduce the cost of publication substantiality 降低出版成本 D. free universities from financial burdens使大学摆脱财政负担

30 细节题 D the few feed on the many

根据题干关键词scientific publishing model定位到最后一段第五句,labour is provided places free in exchange for the hope of status, while huge profits are made by a few big firms who run the market places.劳动力被免费提供,以换取地位的希望,而一些经营市场的大公司则获得了巨额利润。 可知少部分作者免费劳动,大部分公司盈利,A选项为同义替换

Text 3

Progressives often support diversity mandates as a path to equality and a way to level the playing field. But all too often such policies are an insincere form of virtue-signaling that benefits only the most privileged and does little to help average people.

A pair of bills sponsored by Massachusetts state Senator Jason Lewis and House Speaker Pro Tempore Patricia Haddad,to ensure “gender parity"on boards and commissions, provide a case in commissions will be required to set aside 50 percent of board seats for women by 2022.

The bills are similar to a measure recently adopted in California, which last year became the irst state to require gender quotas for private companies.In signing the measure,California Govermor Jery Brown admitted that the law, which expressly classifies people on the basis of sex,is probably unconstitutional.

The US Supreme Court frowns on sex-based classifications unless they are designed to address an“important"policy interest,Because the California law applies to all boards,ever where there is no history of prior discrimination,courts are likely to rule that the law violates the constitutional guarantee of“equal protection”.

But are such government mandates even necessary?Female participation on corporate boards may not currently mirror the percentage of women.in the general population,but so what?

The number of women on corporate boards has been steadily increasing without govenment interference.According to a study by Catalyst,between 2010 and 2015 the share of women on the boards of global corporations increased by 54 percent.

Requiring companies to make gender the primary qualification for board membership will inevitably lead to less experienced private sector boards.That is exactly what happened when Norway adopted a nationwide corporate gender quota.

Writing in The New Republic, Alice Lee notes that increasing the number of opportunities for board membership without increasing the pool of qualified women to serve on such boards has led to a“golden skirt"phenomenon. where the same elite women scoop up multiple seats on a variety of boards.

Next time somebody pushes corporate quotas as a way to promote gender equity,remember that such policies are largely self-serving measures that make their sponsors feel good but do little to help average women.

31.The author believes hat the bills sponsored by Lewis and Haddad will_____

[A] help lttle to reduce gender bias.

[B] pose a threat to the state government.

[C] raise women's position in politics.

[D] greatly broaden career options.

32.Which of the following is true of the Califomnia measure?____

[A] It has irritated private business owners.

[B] It is welcomed by the Supreme Court.

[C]It may go against the Constitution.

[D] It will setle the prior controversies.

33.The author mentions the study by Catalyst to illustrate_____

[A] the harm from arbitrary board decision.

[B] the importance of constitutional guarantees.

[C] the pressure on women in global corporations.

[D] the needlessness of government interventions.

34.Norway's adoption of a nationwide corporate gender quota has led to_____

[A] the underestimation of elite women's role.

[B] the objection to female participation on bards.

[C] the entry of unqualified candidates into the board.

[D] the growing tension between Labor and management.

35. Which of the following can be inferred from the text?_____

IAI Women's need in employment should be considered

[B] Feasibility should be a prime concern in policymaking.

[C] Everyone should try hard to promote social justice.

[D] Major social issues should be the focus of legislation.

Text 3答案解析

31 态度题 A help little to reduce gender bias

纵观全文,文章一直在论述该法案,在最后一段作者提出了自己的想法,下次有人把企业配额作为促进性别平等的一种方式。请记住,这些基本上都是自私自利的措施,让他们的赞助商感觉良好,但其实并没有什么帮助,由此可见作者对此法案采取否定态度,A help little to reduce gender bias对减少性别偏见没什么帮助为同义替换的正确选项

32 细节题 C it may go against the constitution

根据题干中的关键词 California measures定位到原文第五段第二句,Because the California law applies to all boards, ... courts are likely to rule that the law violate the constitutional guarantee of "equal protection" violate 违反宪法,选项C against替换violate为正确选项

33. 例证题 D the needlessness of government interventions

根据题干中catalyst替换到第7段,论点为上一句The number of women on corporate boards has been steadily increasing without government . 在没有政府的情况下,公司董事会中的妇女人数一直在稳步增加。可见D选项中the needlessness of government interventions政府干预的不必要性

34 细节题 C the entry of unqualified candidates into the board

根据Norway定位到倒数第三段第一句,要求将性别作为董事会成员的主要资格,必然会导致私营部门董事会减少。紧接着下文董事会成员的机会越来越多,却没有合格的女性来担任董事会成员, 由此可见会有不合格的人进入董事会,正确选项C 不合格候选人进入董事会

35 推断 B Feasibility should be a prime concern in policymaking 由最后一段可知,下次有人把企业配额作为促进性别平等的一种方式。请记住,这些基本上都是自私自利的措施,让他们的赞助商感觉良好,但其实并没有什么帮助。由此可知该政策并不可取,正确选项B可行性应是决策的首要考虑因素

Text 4

Last Thursday, the French Senate passed a digital services tax, which would impose an entirely new tax on large multinationals that provide digital services to consumers or users in France. Digital services include everything from providing a platform for selling goods and services online to targeting advertising based on user data and the tax applies to gross revenue from such services.Many French politicians and media outlets have referred to this as a“GAFA tax,"meaning that it is designed to apply primarily to companies such as Google,Apple,Facebook and Amazon-in other words,mutinational tech companies based in the United States.

The digital services tax now awaits the signature of President Emmanuel Macron, who has expressed support for the measure,and it could go into effect within the next few weeks.But it has already sparked significant controversy, with the Unite States trade representative opening a investigation into whether the tax discriminates against American companies,which in tum could lead to trade sanctions against France.

The French tax is not just a unilateral move by one country in need of revenue.Instead,the digital services tax is part of a much larger trend, with countries over the past few years proposing or putting in place an alphabet soup of new international tax provisions.These have included Britain's DPT (diverted profits tax), Australia's MAAL (multinational antiavoidance law),and India's SEP (significant economic presence) test,to.name but a few.At the same time,the European Union,Spain,Britain and several other countries have all seriously contemplated digital services taxes.

These unilateral developments differ in their specifics,but they are all designed to tax multinationals on income and revenue that countries believe they should have a right to tax,even if intermnational tax rules do not grant them that right.In other words,they all share a view that the international tax system has failed to keep up with the current economy.

In response to these many unilateral measures, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)is currently working with 131 countries to reach a consensus by the end of 2020 on an international solution.Both France and the United States are involved in the organization's work, but France's digital services tax and the American response raise questions about what the future holds for the interational tax system.

France's planned tax is a clear waning:Unless a broad consensus can be reached on reforming the international tax system.other nations are likely to follow suit, and American companies will face a cascade of different taxes from dozens of nations that will prove burdensome and costly.

36. The French Senate has passed a bill to____

[A] regulate digital services platforms.

[B] protect French companies' interests.

[C] impose a levy on tech multinationals.

[D] curb the influence of advertising.

37. It can be learmned from Paragraph 2 that the digital services tax_____

[A] may trigger countermeasures against France.

[B] is apt to arouse criticism at home and abroad.

[C] aims to ease intermational trade tensions.

[D] will prompt the tech giants to quit France.

38. The countries adopting the unilateral measures share the opinion that_____

[A] redistribution of tech giants' revenue must be ensured.

[B] the current intermational tax system needs upgrading

[C] tech multinationals' monopoly should be prevented.

[D] all countries ought to enjoy equal taxing rights.

39. It can be learned from Paragraph 5 that the OECO'S current work_____

[A] is being resisted by Us companies.

[B] needs to be readjusted immediately.

[C] is faced with uncertain prospects.

[D] needs to involve more countries.

40. Which of the following might be the best title for this text?_____

[A] France Is Confronted with Trade Sanctions

[B] France leads the charge on Digital Tax

[C]France Says "NO" to Tech Multinationals

[D] France Demands a Role in the Digital Economy

Text4答案解析

36. 【C】 impose a levy on tech multinationals 细节题。根据题干直接定位到第一段第一句话 a digital services tax, which would impose an entirely new tax on large multinationals that provide digital services…;选项C中的“levy”和“tax”同义复现;“tech multinationals” 和digital services 同义复现。因此C为正确答案,奇遇选项均未体现。

37.【A】may trigger countermeasures against France 推断题。根据提干定位到第二段,第二段第二句话but it has already sparked significant controversy,…,which in turn could lead to trade sanctions against France(这已经引起了巨大的反抗,…, 反过来也会导致针对法国的贸易制裁)和选项A相一致;其中选项中的“trigger”和原文的“lead to”同义复现,“sanction”和“countermeasure”同义复现。其余选项均未体现。

38.【B】the current international tax system needs upgrading 细节题。根据题干定位到第四段最后一句话 “they all share a view that the international tax system has failed to keep up with the current economy(他们都认为国际税收体系并未跟上当前经济形势)。选项B目前的国际税收体系需要升级是该句话的反义复现。其余选项均为体现。

39.【C】is faced with uncertain prospects 细节题。根据提干定位到第五段最后一句话”raise questions about what the future holds for the international tax system(对于国际税收体系的未来充满疑虑)”和选项C相一致。其中选项中的“uncertain”和原文中的“raise questions”同义复现,“prospects”和原文中的 “future”同义复现。

40【B】France leads the charge on digital tax 主旨题。题干中的title为标题题的信息,所以此题考查的是文章的主旨大意。B 选项里的 tax是贯穿全文的主旨词;而文章以法国对数字服务征税为起点,全文描写了包括法国在内的其它国家对全球税收系统的担忧,因此选项B和文章的主旨相符合。剩余选项均选项未能体现文章关键词和全文主旨。

Part B

Directions:

Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the A-G for each of the numbered paragraph (41 -45).There are two extra subheadings.Mark youranswers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

[A] Eye fixations are brief

[B] Too much eye contact is instinctively felt to rude

[C] Eye contact can be a friendly social signal

[D] Personality can affect how a person reacts to eye contact

[E] Biological factors behind eye contact are being investigated

[F] Most people are not comfortable holding eye contact with strangers

[G] Eye contact can also be aggressive.

In a social situation, eye contact with another person can show that you are paying attention in a friendly way.But it can also be antagonistic such as when a political candidate turns toward their competitor during a debate and makes eye contact that signals hostility.Here's what hard science reveals about eye contact:

41._________________________

We know that a typical infant will instinctively gaze into its mother's eyes, and she will look back.This mutual gaze is a major part of the attachment between mother and child. In adulthood,looking someone else in a pleasant way can be a complimentary sign of paying attention.It can catch someone 's attention in a crowded room,“Eye contact and smile" can signal availability and confidence,a common-sense notion supported in studies by psychologist Monica Moore.

42._________________________

Neuroscientist Bonnie Augeung found that the hormone oxytocin increased the amount of eye contact from men toward the interviewer during a brief interview when the direction of their gaze was recorded. This was also found in high-functioning men with some autistic spectrum symptoms,who may tend to avoid eye contact.Specific brain regions that respond during direct gaze are being explored by other researches, using advanced methods of brain scanning.

43.__________________________

With the use of eye-tracking technology,Julia Minson of the Harvard Kennedy School of Government concluded that eye contact can signal very different kinds of messages,depending on the situation.While eye contact may be a sign of connection or trust in friendly situations,it's more likely to be associated with dominance or intimidation in adversarial situations.“Whether you're a politician or a parent,it might be helpful to keep in mind that trying to maintain eye contact may backfire if you're trying to convince someone who has a different set of beliefs than you,"said Minson.

44.___________________________

When we look at a face or a picture, our eyes pause on one spot at a time,often on the eyes or mouth.These pauses typically occur at about three per second, and the eyes then jump to another spot until several important points in the image are registered like a series of snapshots.How the whole image is then assembled and perceived is still a mystery although it is the subject of current research.

45.____________________________

In people who score high in a test of neuroticism, a personality dimension associated with self-consciousness and anxiety, eye contact triggered more activity associated with avoidance,according to the Finnish researcher Jari Hietanen and colleagues. “Our findings indicate that people do not only feel different when they are the centre of attention but that their brain reactions also differ."A more direct finding is that people who scored high for negative emotions like anxiety looked at others for shorter periods of time and reported more comfortable feelings when others did not look directly at them.

Part B答案解析

41.答案:C. Eye contact can be a friendly social signal

解析:本段第三句说了,“can be a complimentary significant of paying attention”,此外本段最后一句也说:眼神接触和微笑能signal availability and confidence发送可用性和自信的信号。都说明眼神接触是个友善的社交信号。 因此选C。

42.答案:E

解析:本段第一句就出现了hormone 荷尔蒙,此外,本段中出现的oxytocin催产素,hign-functioning高官能,autistic spectrum symptoms自闭症谱系症状等词都说明是在聊生物因素。最后一句中还有explore探索,brain scanning 脑部扫描。所以选E

43. 答案:G

解析:本段第一句就说了eye contact can signal very different kinds of messages,depending on the situation眼神接触根据不同情况会发出不同的讯息。下一句主干说在不利环境中,会与dominance支配or intimidation恫吓有关联。因此G为正确答案。

44.答案:A

解析 :本段第一句就提到了time,第二句清楚地说到了These pauses typically occur at about three per second,通常每秒三次,充分说明很快,所以选A。

45. 答案:D

解析:第一句话中就有personality。在引用中转折之后,but their brain reactions also differ人们脑部反应不同,最后一句话更加明确说到高负能量的人更觉得被人直视令人不舒服。因此选D。

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Following the explosion of creativity in Florence during the 14th century known as the Renaissance, the modern world saw a departure from what it had once known.It turned from God and the authority of the Roman Catholic Church and instead favoured a more humanistic approach to being. Renaissance ideas had spread throughout Europe well into the 17th century,with the arts and sciences flourishing extraordinarily among those with a more logical disposition. 46.With (the gap between) the Church's teachings and ways of thinking being eclipsed by the Renaissance, the gap between the Medieval and modern periods had been bridged, leading to new and unexplored intellectual territories.

During the Renaissance, the great minds of Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei demonstrated the power of scientific study and discovery. 47. Before each of their revelations. many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking, including the Ptolemaic and Aristotlean geocentric view that the Earth was at the centre of our universe.Copernicus theorised in 1543 that in actual fact, all of the planets that we knew of revolved not around the Earth, but the Sun, a system that was later upheld by Galileo at his own expense.Offering up such a theory during a time of high tension between scientific and religious minds was branded as heresy, and any such heretics that continued to spread these lies were to be punished by imprisonment or even death. Galileo was excommunicated by the Church and imprisoned for life for his astronomical observations and his support of the heliocentricprinciple.

48.Despite attempts by the Church to strong-arm this new generation of logicians and rationalists, more explanations for how the universe functioned were being made, and at a ratethat the people一including the Church一could no longer ignore. It was with these great revelations that a new kind of philosophy founded in reason was born.

The Church's long- standing dogma was losing the great battle for truth to rationalists and scientists. This very fact embodied the new ways of thinking that swept through Europe during most of the 17th century. 49. As many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world. The Renaissance was over and it was time for a new era-the Age of Reason.

The 17th and 18th centuries were times of radical change and curiosity. Scientific method,reductionism and the questioning of Church ideals was to be encouraged, as were ideas of liberty, tolerance and progress. 50. Such actions to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew were captured by the Latin phrase ‘sapere aude' or‘dare to know', after Immanuel Kant used it in his essay An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?. It was the purpose and responsibility of great minds to go forth and seek out the truth, which they believed to be founded in knowledge.

PartC答案解析:

由于文艺复兴时期教会的教义和思维方式之间的差距被消除,中世纪和现代时期之间的差距得以弥合,导致了新的和未开发的知识领域。

47. Before each of their revelations, many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking, including the geocentric view that the Earth was at the centre of our universe.

每个启示出现之前,当时的许多思想家都采用更为古老的思维方式,包括地心说的观点,该观点认为地球是我们宇宙的中心。

48. Despite attempts by the Church to sop suppress this new generation of logicians and rationalists,more explorations for how the universe functioned were being made at a rate that people could no longer ignore.

尽管教堂做出许多尝试去压制新一代的逻辑学家和理性主义者,但是更多对于宇宙是如何运作的探索正在以人们难以忽视的速度进行着。

49. As many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world, the Renaissance was over and it was time for a new era.

正当很多人致力于尝试把推理和科学哲理融入到世界时,文艺复兴结束了,而此时一个新的时代到来了。

50. Such actions to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew were captured by the Latin phrase's ‘Sapere aude’ or ’dare to know’.

这些探索知识并且理解已知信息的行为可以用拉丁文“Sapere aude”或英文“dare to know”描述。

【解析】

1. 本句主干为 the gap between the medieval and modern periods had been bridged(中世纪和现代时期之间的差距得以弥合)

2. With (the gap between) the church's teachings and ways of thinking being eclipsed by the Renaissance做伴随状语,其中being eclipsed是with+宾语+宾补结构的一部分。

3. leading to new and unexplored intellectual territories现在分词作结果状语。

【参考译文】

由于文艺复兴时期教会的教义和思维方式之间的差距被消除,中世纪和现代时期之间的差距得以弥合,导致了新的和未开发的知识领域。

47. Before each of their revelations, many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking, including the geocentric view that the Earth was at the centre of our universe.

【解析】

1. 本句主干为many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking(当时的许多思想家都采用更为古老的思维方式) ,其中 at the time作后置定语修饰many thinkers 。

2. Before each of their revelations部分为时间状语。

3. including the geocentric view that the Earth was at the centre of our universe,分词作后置定语修饰ways of thinking,其中that后是同位语从句修饰限定view。

【参考译文】在每个启示之前,当时的许多思想家都采用更为古老的思维方式,包括地心说的观点,该观点认为地球是我们宇宙的中心。

48) Despite attempts by the Church to suppress this new generation of logicians and rationalists,more explorations for how the universe functioned were being made at a rate that people could no longer ignore.

【解析】

1. 本句主干为more explorations for how the universe functioned were being made(更多对于宇宙是如何运作的探索正在进行着),其中for后面是how引导的宾语从句。

2. Despite attempts by the Church to suppress this new generation of logicians and rationalists

做方式状语,其中to suppress...作后置定语修饰attempts

3. that people could no longer ignore做定语从句修饰rate。

【参考译文】

尽管教堂做出许多尝试去压制新一代的逻辑学家和理性主义者,但是更多对于宇宙是如何运作的探索正在以人们难以忽视的速度进行着。

49) As many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world, the Renaissance was over and it was time for an Age of Reason.

【解析】

1. 本句主干为the Renaissance was over and it was time for a new era. (文艺复兴结束了,而此时一个新的时代到来了),是两个并列单句。

2. As many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world为时间状语从句,as译为“当.......什么时候”

(1) took on the duty,意思为“承担责任”

(2) of后是介宾短语作后置定语修饰duty。

【参考译文】

正当很多人致力于尝试把推理和科学哲理融入到世界时,文艺复兴结束了,而此时一个新的理性时代到来了。

50) Such actions to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew were captured by the Latin phrase's‘Sapere aude’or‘dare to know’.

【解析】

1. 本句是一简单句,主干的谓语动词是were captured

2. to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew 部分是不定式作后置定语,修饰such actions,其中what information we already knew是 understand 的宾语从句。

【参考译文】

试图去寻求知识和理解我们已有信息这种行动由拉丁文词语 ‘Sapere aude’ 或 ‘dare to know’来描述。

SectionⅢ writing

Part A 

The student union of your university has assigned you to inform the international students

about an upcoming singing contest.Write a notice in about 100 words.

Write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name in the notice.(10 points)

[参考范文]

Notice

Dec.21, 2019

In order to enrich the campus life and provide the colorful life for you,the Students' Union is preparing the upcoming singing contest, which will be held in the auditorium in our university on the evening of December 31, 2019. Now, the Union is recruiting contestants for this competition.

Anyone who are fond of signing or interested in the competition, please send his or her application to students' union @ sohu.com before next Wednesday.Besides,there are generous awards in gratitude for this activity.Please do not hesitate to contact us if you have any queries concerming the singing contest. Meanwhile, volunteers for this activity are badly needed to assist us in organizing the relevant affairs.

We are looking forward to your participation.

The Students' Union

【参考译文】

通知

2019年12月21日

为了丰富校园生活,为大家提供丰富多彩的生活,学生会正在筹备即将于2019年12月31日晚在我校大礼堂举行的歌唱比赛。现在,学生会正在为这次比赛招募选手。

有意报名或有意报名的同学请于下周三之前将报名表发送至学生会@sohu.com.此外,本次活动还设有丰厚的奖励。如果您对歌唱比赛有任何疑问,请随时与我们联系。同时,我们也非常需要这次活动的志愿者来协助我们组织相关的事务。

我们期待您的参与。

学生会

Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the pictures below.In your essay,you should

1) describe the picture briefly,

2) interpret the implied meaning. am

3) give your comments.

Write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

1.png

解析:

2020年考研英语已经结束啦,相信同学们在考场上看到考题会信心满满。因为从内容上来讲,今年的英语一大作文依然延续2019年的出题思路,考查了品质类话题的图画作文,而不同的地方在于2019年是一幅图,但今年却是两幅图相反。从难度上来说,今年和去年持平,对于“习惯”的英语表达,相信大家都不陌生是“habit”。

写作时,按照一般顺序。第一段图画描述段,左图是位女孩正在非常努力地做着学校作业,心里想着是“尽早完成才放心”,右图是位男孩躺在沙发上也不看书,书桌上只有一本摊开的书和一支笔,心里却想着“不到最后不动手”,这两幅所反映的内容正好相反,它所反映的寓意依然是合理自洽即可,小编认为两者的不同在于习惯,女孩有很好的规划能力并有效利用时间完成任务,而男孩则恰恰相反,空耗时间只待最后“速成”,结果自然不会理想,因而我们需要养成合理规划时间的好习惯;第二段是寓意阐释段,按照品质类的框架结构,即关键句和具体作用, 可以说scheduling有助于我们充分利用时间以达到学业乃至事业上的成功,还可以讲acquire the habit of time management有助于我们克服拖延,做时间的主人;第三段是个人评论段,框架结构是关键句+具体建议+结尾句,可以说我们需要加强人们对此种品质的意识,希望人人都可以拥有这种美好的品质。

另外,注意大作文的评分侧重点。考研大纲指出:B节作文的评分侧重点在于信息点的完整、内容组织的连贯、语言的准确性、语言的多样性。字迹工整,少涂抹痕迹也很关键哦。

下面附加范文以供小可爱们参考。

【参考范文】

Portrayed distinctively by the two cartoons above is an impressive scene: a girl in the left picture is doing homework and saying that early completion is better. Nevertheless, the boy in the right picture is sitting in front of the desk and saying that he will not finish the homework until the last minute.

Undoubtedly, the symbolic implication of the pictures is to show us that importance should be attached to the formation of good habits, especially the good habit of time management.On the one hand, efficient time management is critical to personal development.As the old saying goes,“Time is money," and in the fast-paced modern life, it seems that we always have a lot of things to do and we are very busy. In the face of such a situation, we have to realize that efficiency holds the key to saving time and time management skills hold the key to personal success. On the other hand,good time management habits play a vital role in the development of the whole society.There is no doubt that, to a large extent, social progress is closely related to the efforts of each individual. If we can develop the good habit of time management,we are much more likely to improve efficiency and have a better performance in the learming and working process, which is an integral part of social advances and prosperity.

From what has been mentioned above, we can come to the conclusion that the sense of efficient time management skills is of equal importance in personal and social progress.Therefore,we ought to take advantage of the phenomenon to enlighten the public and the press is expected to take a lead in advertising the value of developing good time management habits.Only in this way can we have a bright future.

[参考译文]

上面两幅漫画所描绘的是-个令人印象深刻的画面:左图中的一个女孩正在做作业,她说早完成比较好。然而,右图中的男孩正坐在书桌前,说他要到最后一分钟才 会完成。

毫无疑问,这两幅图的象征意义是:我们应该重视好习惯的养成,尤其是时间管理方面的好习惯。一方面,高效的时间管理对个人发展至关重要。俗话说,“时间就是金钱”,在快节奏的现代生活中,我们似乎总是有很多事情要做,很忙。面对这种情况,我们必须认识到,效率是节省时间的关键,而且时间管理技能是个人成功的关键。另一方面,良好的时间管理习惯对整个社会的发展起着至关重要的作用。毋庸置疑,社会进步在很大程度上与每个人的努力密切相关。如果我们能养成良好的时间管理习惯,我们就更有可能提高效率,在学习和工作过程中有更好的表现,这是社会进步和繁荣发展不可分割的一部分。

综上所述,可得出如下结论:高效的时间管理对于个人和社会的进步同等重要。因此,我们应该利用这一现象来启发公众,而媒体应该带头宣传养成良好的时间管理习惯的价值。只有这样,我们才能拥有一个光明的未来。

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