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Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Should long working hours be restricted? You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words. Please write down your essay on the Answer Sheet.

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Your Smartphone May Be Hurting Your SleepA) You love your smartphone, but it may be ruining your ZZZ’s. Use of these devices, especially near bedtime, is associated with worse quality of sleep, according to a new study. “When we looked at smartphone use around the time when participants reported they went to bed, more smartphone use around that time in particular was associated with a longer time to fall asleep and worse sleep quality during the night,” said Dr. Gregory Marcus, author of the study and an associate professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. His research was published Wednesday in the journal PLOS One.B) The word “crack-berry” became popular roughly a decade ago to describe the addictive quality of BlackBerry devices—arguably the first really successful smartphones. Today, almost everyone is a smartphone junkie, standing with head bowed while waiting for a train or in line at the post office.C) Knowing that smartphone use has increased together with sleep deprivation rates, Marcus and his colleagues decided to investigate whether the two might be related. To answer this question, he used exiting information collected by an Internet-based study he started in March 2016.D) “Health E-Heart,” which was funded by the National Institutes of Health is designed to study cardiovascular health. Anyone 18 years of age or older can enroll in Health E-Heart, co-founded by Drs. Mark Pletcher and Jeffrey Olgin, professors at UCSF. After signing a consent form, enrolled participants self-report their health data via a series of online questionnaires. The information is gathered, analyzed and used to research and develop strategies to prevent and treat all aspects of heart disease. E) About 80,000 participants have enrolled in Health E-Heart, Marcus said. “We’ve had people from every state in the US, lots of people from every state, and we actually have people from 50 countries.” Marcus and his co-founders also make the data available to other scientists conducting unrelated studies. For the new smartphone study, Marcus made use of this wealth of information to conduct his own “sub-study”.F) Of the total Health E-Heart enrollees, 653 people chose to participate in and complete the new smartphone-sleep study. Participants installed an app on their phones to automatically record the total number of minutes in each hour the screen was turned on (total screen time) during a 30-day period. These participants had already reported their sleep hours and sleep quality using a validated questionnaire as part of the general Health E-Heart experience, Marcus explained. So, when answering the sleep assessment questions, participants also entered demographic data plus information about their alcohol use, physical activity, smoking habits and other health issues. By answering so many questions, participants were unaware of what the researchers were studying, explained Marcus: “We wouldn’t expect any bias.”G) Analyzing the data, the researchers discovered that, on average, participants used their smartphones for a total of 38.4 hours over a 30-day period. Individuals with a longer average screen time were more likely to have poorer sleep quality and less sleep overall: About 35% of those who used their smartphones for shorter amounts of time than average had sleep difficulties, compared with 42% of those with average or greater than average use. And poor quality sleep was more likely for participants who used their smartphones near bedtime. H) The researchers discovered that screen-time varies throughout a 24-hour period, but most occurs during the day. Yet for some participants, smartphone use peaked during the night. “We can’t exclude the possibility that some people can’t sleep for some completely unrelated reason, and because they can’t sleep, they’re using their smartphone, just to pass the time,” Marcus said.I) Despite potential shortcomings, Marcus research is in line with other studies showing that the use of technology near bedtime is associated with difficulty sleeping, such as the 2015 National Sleep Foundation poll. Other research has shown that the blue light emitted by smartphones (and other digital devices) might suppress our body’s production of melatonin, a hormone that induces tiredness and contributes to the timing of sleep-wake cycles. “So there’s some biological plausibility supporting the idea that there is a causal relationship, but we weren’t able to identify that,” Marcus noted.J) “It is believed that sleep is a restorative process and a basic biologic need,” said Dr. Neil Kline, a sleep physician, internist and representative of the American Sleep Association. “When animals, including humans, are deprived of sleep, there are many body systems that fail. Not only does our performance, memory and attention span suffer, our immune system and endocrine system is also impaired.”K) Though most of these negative effects have been studied exclusively in adults, children’s sleep is also affected by technology, according to an unrelated study. Lead author Ben Carter, a senior lecturer in biostatistics at King’s College London, and his colleagues discovered that for teens and children, the use of cell phones, tablets and computers is associated with losing sleep time and sleep quality.L) Marcus said he suspects that some people may be affected more than others and overuse of a smartphone impacts their sleep more than it would for other people. He hopes to investigate this question in the future. Based on his results, he suggested that insomniacs and other troubled sleepers should avoid looking at their screens for half an hour or so before going to bed to see whether that might enhance the quality of their slumber. He added, “There’s almost certainly no harm in giving that a good try.”11. Our addiction to smartphones dates back to about ten years ago.  _________  12. Data from Health E-Heart are collected and used for researchers into heart diseases.  _________  13. The findings of Dr. Marcus’s study appeared in PLOS One. _________14. Bad sleepers are advised not to use their smartphones half an hour or so before they go to bed. _________  15. Marcus started his research because he suspected there might be some correlation between sleep loss and smartphone use. _________16. The use of digital devices affects children’s sleep too.  _________  17. To make sure his study was objective, Marcus required his subjects to provide many more of their life details than just sleep hours and sleep quality.  _________  18. Researchers found those who spend longer time playing with their smartphones are more likely to sleep badly.  _________  19. Marcus conceded that some people were sleepless at night for reasons unrelated to mobile phone use.  _________  20. Sleep is our basic biological need and lack of it may cause our body functions to decline. _________    

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Many advantages come with being a first-born child. First-borns tend to make more money than their younger siblings; they are more likely to earn advanced degrees, and they have slightly better odds of becoming presidents, prime ministers, and Nobel laureates. They even have longer life expectancy than later-born siblings.There is yet another advantage: First-born children show better second language skills than later-born children. At least this was the finding of new research in last month’s issue of Frontiers in Psychology.The study, led by Dr. Karin Keller of Switzerland’s University of Basel, examined the second language skills of 1209 immigrant children between the ages of two-and-a-half and three from Switzerland’s German-speaking region of Basel. The study was administered via mail; parents filled out a survey asking them to assess their child’s German language ability. They also reported demographic information such as how many other children were in the household, birth order, number of books in the household, and parental language skills.The findings of the study are as the following. First, children with more siblings exhibited worse second language skills than children with fewer siblings. This makes some sense; one might imagine that larger immigrant families are more likely to propagate the communication styles of their home country. Furthermore, more children means less time for parents to develop their children’s second language abilities.Second, the researchers found that first-born children exhibited a minor, but statistically significant, advantage in their second language abilities.When explaining the causes for the language ability differences, the researchers suggest that the differences have more to do with environmental factors. They cite a “resource dilution model”, in which first-born children benefit from a greater parental resource investment. The researchers write, “Every additional sibling means a reduction in the share of resources allocated to each child, thus reducing the foundations of their intellectual development.”Keller and her team of researchers, however, were quick to put this finding in context. They note that the effect is quite small; they were only able to find it because of the study’s large sample size. Furthermore, exposure to early education institutions offset the effect of birth order on second language acquisition. This, in the researchers’ minds, is the key takeaway from this study.Keller and her colleagues write, “Considering that families from immigrant backgrounds have fewer financial resources, and that these resources influence the children’s level of development. It seems all the more important that immigrant families with many children are financially supported so that their children are offered the best opportunities possible for their academic careers. Given the results of this study, promoting the attendance of early education institutions is an efficient way of achieving this goal.”6. What do we know about first-born children?7. What does the study of Dr. Karin Keller find?8. What is one of the reasons for language ability differences between first-borns and later-borns?9. What is the important information from the study according to the researchers?10. What is suggested to help the immigrant families?

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Walk through Times Square—you’re bombarded with advertising. And it turns out, a bumblebee might have a similar feeling, buzzing through a field of flowers. “So these flowers are these billboards, they’re advertising a commodity, this delicious nectar (花蜜) reward, and bees are very picky shoppers”, says Anne Leonard, a pollination biologist at the University of Nevada, Reno.She describes a flower field as a sort of pollination marketplace. “Bees are nectar experts. They are really good at assessing even really small differences in the sugar concentration of nectar.” They also scope out flower shape and size, color and scent. And now Leonard and her colleagues have discovered that bumblebees are also sensitive to pollen.They found that out by lacing batches of cherry pollen with either table sugar or bitter quinine. And to display the pollen to bees, “We got really into it—we started 3-D printing flowers in our lab.” And for the anther—the male flower part, which presents the pollen —pipe cleaners. “So we bought out Michael’s craft store supplies of these pipe cleaners and used them in our experiments.”It turns out bees would return again and again to the same color flower that dispensed sweet pollen, and spend more time collecting there. But when confronted with the bitter pollen, they sought a different colored flower for their very next stop. All of which suggests that, in addition to savoring nectar, bees taste pollen too—and judge flowers by it. The results are in the journal Biology Letters.The finding means that plants have to find a happy medium: “So can you make your pollen attractive enough that the bees will collect it, but distasteful enough that they won’t collect too much of it?” And that balancing act, of carefully calibrated chemistry(校准化学)—it’s just one of the many transactions that plays out in the buzzing pollination marketplace, where the object is to make a sweet profit.1. What does the author compare a flower field to?2. Why are bees described as nectar experts?3. What are used to present the pollen by Anne and her colleagues in their experiments?4. How do bees choose where to visit in a flower field according to the passage?5. What do Anne and her colleagues’ research findings suggest?

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Passage Two

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Passage One

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Dialogue

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[{"A":" Management of cancer patients.","B":" Relief of the worries of caregivers.","C":" Emotional struggle while caregiving.","D":" Emotional support for cancer patients."}]

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[{"A":" With Dr. Smith at 10 on Wednesday.","B":" With Dr. Smith at 10 on Tuesday","C":" With Dr. Jones at 10 on Wednesday.","D":" With Dr. Jones at 10 on Tuesday."}]

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[{"A":" To take a couple of days off.","B":" To take some sleeping pills.","C":" To follow the man’s advice.","D":" To stop complaining."}]

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[{"A":" He is a babysitter.","B":" He is an oncologist.","C":" He is a pediatrician.","D":" He is an obstetrician."}]

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[{"A":" It may take quite some time to recover.","B":" It can be fixed with a minor op","C":" It is less serious than she expected.","D":" It requires another X-ray text."}]

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[{"A":" Minor","B":" Moderate.","C":" Intense.","D":" Severe."}]

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[{"A":" The little boy is restless and naughty.","B":" The man will help take care of the little boy.","C":" The woman has to spend the day in the lab.","D":" The woman’s son should not stay in the lab."}]

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[{"A":" Jack’s personality.","B":" Jack’s appearance.","C":" Jack’s career.","D":" Jack’s age."}]

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[{"A":" The woman arrived ahead of schedule.","B":" The woman failed to meet her tennis appointment.","C":" The man did not play the tennis game by the rule.","D":" The man helped put the woman on the waiting list."}]

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[{"A":" The woman needs a treatment.","B":" The woman didn’t get paid this week.","C":" The man will probably pay for the dinner.","D":" The man will split the bill with the woman."}]

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[{"A":" Cough.","B":" Headache","C":" Diarrhea.","D":" Fever."}]

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[{"A":" To drop her business proposal.","B":" To give more details about her proposal.","C":" To weigh losses and gains of the business.","D":" To submit the proposal before the deadline."}]

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[{"A":" He stayed up very late at the party.","B":" He didn’t go home after the party.","C":" He suffers from sleeplessness.","D":" He used to be in poor health."}]

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