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Most people left and the( )sat down to wait.

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Would you please( )on your second point?

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We will stop now and( )working at two o’clock.

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School children ought to be( )to their parents and teachers.

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The service operates 15 libraries throughout the country, while six( )libraries specially serve the countryside.

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Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on “Study Abroad”, You should write at least 180 words following the outline given below:1. 有些人认为,学生应该待在自己的国家学习;2. 有些人认为学生应该到美国学习;3. 我的观点。

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对于多数人来讲,引起焦虑的主要原因是高昂的房价、教育的支出和医疗费用。人们生活在巨大的压力之下,但是低且增长缓慢的工资使他们看不到脱离困境的希望。有时似乎是机会多多,人们也会因此而产生焦虑。

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Chinese culture is developed around collectivism which stresses communion and harmony. Western culture emphasizes individualism. In terms of eating customs, chopsticks and knives and forks are two disparate expressions of this cultural difference. The Chinese like to have communal meals where everybody eats out of the same bowl of food. Chopsticks were used in order to discourage people from eating more than others. This was not only a good way to preserve collectiveness, but also to limit individualism. It is more straightforward in the West. People eat their meals on their own and there is no restriction on how to eat.

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In Western countries people have been using the installment(分期付款) since the first half of the twentieth century.(1)indicate that more than 60 percent of the yearly retail sales(零售) in the U.S. are credit transaction. About three fourths of the credit sales are made on the installment plan. More than half of the automobiles,(2), and house-hold appliances are purchased on the installment plan.Many families can save enough to make major purchases;(3), they are able to purchases without cash on the installment plan. The price of goods bought in this way is always(4)than the price that would be paid(5)cash. There is a charge for interest. The buyer will have to pay a proportion(6), perhaps one-quarter or one-third, of the price as a down payment when the goods are delivered to him. He then makes(7)payments, weekly or monthly, until the(8)price is paid up. The legal ownership of the goods remains with the(9)until the final payment has been made.Some economists believe that selling goods to consumers on an installment plan is one of the major factors in(10)the high standard of living possible. They(11)that installment selling increases the consumption of goods, which in(12)increase production and thus tends to lower costs.However, government officials, and businessmen express(13)about excessive purchasing on the installment plan. If many people on the installment plan(14)their jobs, they would probably not be able to make their payments. There is possibility(15)businessmen cannot collect their debts and will therefore lose money. If businessmen lose money or fail to make a(16)profit, the possibilities of having a(17)are increased. This is(18), in some countries, the government controls the installment plan by(19)the proportion of the down payment and the succeeding installment to discourage people(20)buying more than they can pay for on the installment plan.

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Pretty in pink: adult women do not remember being so obsessed with the color, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. It is not that pink intrinsically bad, but it is a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fused girls’ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests.Girls’ attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it’s not. Children were not color-coded at all until the early 20th century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What’s more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses. When nursery colors were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine color, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolized femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children’s marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem innately attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years.I had not realized how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler (学步的儿童). I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children’s behavior: wrong. Turns out, according to Daniel Cook a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularized as a marketing gimmick by clothing manufacturers in the 1930s.Trade publications counseled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create “third stepping stone” between infant wear and older kids’ clothes. It was only after “toddler” became common shoppers’ term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults, into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences — or invent them where they did not previously exist.17. By saying “it is ...The rainbow”, the author means pink( ).18. The author suggests that our perception of children’s psychological devotement was much influenced by( ).19. We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised to( ).20. It can be concluded that girl’s attraction to pink seems to be( ).

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If the salinity of ocean waters is analyzed, it is found to vary only slightly from place to place. Nevertheless, some of these small changes are important. There are three basic processes that cause a change in oceanic salinity. One of these is the subtraction of water from the ocean by means of evaporation-conversion of liquid water to water vapor. In this manner, the salinity is increased, since the salts stay behind. If this is carried to the extreme, of course, white crystals of salt would be left behind: this, by the way, is how much of the table salt we use is actually obtained.The opposite of evaporation is precipitation, such as rain, by which water is added to the ocean. Here the ocean is being diluted so that the salinity is decreased. This may occur in areas of high rainfall or in coastal regions where rivers flow into the ocean. Thus salinity may be increased by the subtraction of water by evaporation or decreased by the addition of fresh water by precipitation or runoff.Normally, in tropical regions where the sun is very strong, the ocean salinity is somewhat higher than it is in other parts of the world where there is not as much evaporation. Similarly, in coastal regions where rivers dilute the sea, salinity is somewhat lower than in other oceanic areas.A third process by which salinity may be altered is associated with the formation and melting of sea ice. When seawater is frozen, the dissolved materials are left behind. In this manner, seawater directly beneath freshly formed sea ice has a higher salinity than it did before the ice appeared. Of course, when this ice melts it will tend to decrease the salinity of the surrounding water.In the Weddell Sea, off Antarctica, the densest water in the oceans is formed as a result of this freezing process, which increases the salinity of cold water. This heavy water sinks and is found in the deepest portions of the oceans of the world.13. What does this passage mainly discuss?14. Which of the following is NOT true after the formation of ocean ice?15. Why does the author mention the Weddell Sea in the last paragraph?16. What can be inferred about the water near the bottom of oceans with ices?

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Children are getting so fat they may be the first generation to die before their parents, an expert claimed yesterday.Today’s youngsters are already falling prey to potential killers such as diabetes because of their weight. Fatty fast-food diets combined with sedentary lifestyles dominated by televisions and computers could mean kids will die tragically young, says Professor Andrew Prentice, from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.At the same time, the shape of the human body is going through a huge evolutionary shift because adults are getting so fat. Here in Britain, the latest research shows that the average waist size for a man is 36 - 38in and may be 42 - 44 in by 2032. This compares with only 32.6in in 1972. Women’s waists have grown from an average of 22in in 1920 to 24in in the Fifties and 30in now. One of the major reasons why children now are at greater risk is that we are getting fatter younger. In the UK alone, more than one million under-16s are classed as overweight or obese — double the number in the mid-Eighties. One in ten four-year-olds are also medically classified as obese. The obesity pandemic — an extensive epidemic — which started in the US, has now spread to Europe, Australia, Central America and the Middle East.Many nations now record more than 20 per cent of their population as clinically obese and well over half the population as overweight. Prof Prentice said the change in our shape has been caused by a glut of easily available high-energy foods combined with a dramatic drop, in the energy we use as a result of technology developments.He is not alone in his concern. Only last week one medical journal revealed how obesity was fueling a rise in cancer cases. Obesity also increases the risk factor for strokes and heart disease. An averagely obese person’s lifespan is shortened by around nine years while a severely obese person by many more.Prof Prentice said: “So will parents outlive their children, as claimed recently by an American obesity specialist?” The answer is yes -and no. Yes, when the offspring become grossly obese. This is now becoming an alarmingly common occurrence in the US. Such children and adolescents have a greatly reduced quality of life in terms, of both their physical and psychosocial health. So say No to that doughnut and burger.9. What does the word “sedentary” (Para. 2) mean?10. Which statement is TRUE?11. According to Prof Prentice, what are the reasons for the change in our shape?12. What does the author mean by “So say No to that doughnut and burger”?

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Shopping in the United States is always a pleasant experience. There are different types of shops that operate to cater to your different needs. To buy groceries, you can go to the convenience store, the supermarket or the mass merchandiser (such as Wall Mart). To buy some clothes and big-ticket items you can go to the mall or factory outlets.Every grocery store has promotions on different kinds of products every week. Usually you can find a store weekly newspaper with featured promotions for that particular week. I am a bargain hunter, forward buying a lot of daily products if I feel I need them in the future. Once, I saw a featured promotion on Pantene 2 in 1 shampoo plus conditioner(护发素). Although I did not need it at that time, I felt it was a great deal. So I decided to buy 2 bottles. However, I could not find any such Pantene on the shelf. I went to a sales clerk and asked if he could find any for me. He told me that the store was out of the stock and it would not have any in until the next week. The unfortunate thing was that by then the promotion would be over. However, the clerk told me that I could go the customer service counter and I would be given a rain check, which would guarantee the promotion price for me on that particular item.A shopping mall in the States is composed of many individual specialty shops and nationwide chain stores, such as Sears and JC Penny. What impresses me most when shopping is its return policy. No matter what you buy, shoes, pants or big-ticket items such as JV and VCR, if you find some problems with them or simply do not like them any longer, you can return them within 30 days. You won’t be challenged at the customer service counter as long as you have your receipt. Of course there are some people who might take advantage of this return policy, especially when they need something for a momentary use. That’s why you can find a long line of people waiting to return their goods right after Christmas.5. What does the word “big-ticket” (Para. 1) most probably mean?6. It can be inferred from the second paragraph that the author( ).7. According to the author, the return policy of the mall( ).8. The author thinks many people return their goods after Christmas because( ).

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How are Nike and Starbucks connected? Both are brands, perhaps Nike being more well-known. Both are lifestyle products. Both have US origins. And both have benefited from the expertise of brand expert Scott Bedbury.When Bedbury joined Nike in 1987, the company was a US $750 million business. He directed Nike’s worldwide advertising campaign and launched the “Just do it” theme. When he left in 1994, Nike was a US $4 billion company.Now Bedbury is senior vice president of marketing at Starbucks Coffee, responsible for building the US $700 million Seattle 9 based company into a global brand.Bedbury has some brand-building principles.Principle One: A great brand is in it for the long haul. This means that companies need to realize that a great brand is a necessity, not luxury. It means that companies cannot focus just on short term financial returns and sacrifice long-term brand-building investments.Principle Two: A great brand can be anything. Nike does not simply have to be shoes and apparels (服装). Nike can take advantage of the deep emotional connection that people have with sports and fitness. Starbucks has the opportunity for emotional leverage as coffee has woven itself into the fabric of people’s lives.Principle Three: A great brand knows itself. This means finding out what need to energize and re-energize the brand through surprising, intriguing campaigns related to the brand’s core positioning.Principle Four: A great brand investor invents or reinvents an entire category. According to Bedbury, great brand aims to be a protagonist — it adds a greater sense of purpose to the experience consumers have with the brand. Nike has an informed opinion on where sports are going.Principle Five: A great brand taps emotions. Product performance is good but it is the emotional connection that matters most. There’s always the emotional element behind every choice. A brand that helps consumers connect with their dreams and aspirations is bound to have more powerful emotional bonding.What’s important to remember is that a great brand can travel worldwide, transcend cultural barriers.1. This passage is mainly focused on( ).2. The attempt the author mentions Nike and Starbucks is to( ).3. The main idea of Principle Five is that( ).4. The sentence “a great brand can be anything” in paragraph 6 implies that( ).

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The pollution question as well as several other issues is going to be discussed, when the congress is in( )again next spring.

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The gym has equipped with various pieces of weight-lifting( ).

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The police charged the man with the( )of the watch.

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Only native-born citizens are( )for the U.S. Presidency.

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Jim is so( )after injuring his leg that he has great difficulty in walking.

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 John was on the( )of his career and he worked hard at that time.

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