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考博英语
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  • 北京航空航天大学
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  • 通用考博英语
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Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition in three paragraphs. The title of the composition is Books and Teenagers. You are given the first sentence of each paragraph. Your composition should be about 150 words, not including the words given. Remember to write clearly on the Composition Sheet.Books and TeenagersDifferent books are intended for different people.Teenagers are not supposed to read all kinds of books.Instructions and advice are helpful for young people.

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天空还是一片浅蓝,颜色很淡。转眼间天边出现了一道红霞,慢慢地在扩大它的范围, 加强它的亮点。我知道太阳要从天边升起来了,便目不转睛地望着那里。果然,过了一会儿,在那个地方出现了太阳的小半边脸,红是真红,却没有亮光。这个太阳好像负着重荷似的一步一步、慢慢地努力上升,到了最后,终于冲破了云霞,完全跳出了海面,颜色红得非常可爱。一刹那间,这个深红的圆东西,忽然发出了夺目的亮光,射得人眼睛发痛,它旁边的云片也突然有了光彩。有时太阳走进云层里,它的光线却从云里射下来,直射到水面上。这时候,要分辨出哪里是水,哪里是天,倒也不容易,因为我就只看见一片灿烂的亮光。

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Man, the UnknownIn the organization of industrial life and influence of the factory upon the physiological and mental state of the workers has been completely neglected. Modern industry is based on the conception of the maximum production at lowest cost, in order that an individual or a group of individuals may earn as much money as possible. It has expanded without any idea of the true nature of the human beings who run the machines, and without giving any consideration to the effects produced on the individuals and on their descendants by the artificial mode of existence imposed by the factory. The great cities have been built with no regard for us. The shape and dimensions of the skyscrapers depend entirely on the necessity of obtaining the maximum income per square foot of ground, and of offering to the tenants offices and apartments that please them. This caused the construction of gigantic building where too large masses of human beings are crowded together. Civilized men like such a way of living. While they enjoy the comfort and banal luxury of their dwelling, they do not realize that they are deprived of the necessities of life. The modern city consists of monstrous edifices and of dark, narrow streets full of petrol fumes, coal dust, and toxic gases, torn by the noise of the taxi-cabs, lorries and buses, and thronged ceaselessly by great crowds. Obviously, it has not been planned for the good of its inhabitants.

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Japan, whose population is aging faster than that of any other nations, may provide a laboratory for the challenges that developed societies will increasingly face. Such challenges(51)rising pension and medical costs and greater stress(52)a shrinking number of family caretakers,(53)to a recent study published by the Population Reference Bureau. Inc, in Washington, D. C.The proportion of the Japanese population(54)65 and over is expected to(55)than double between 1985 and 2025,(56)from 10% of the total population to 23%,(57)to decreasing birth and death rates.(58), Japan’s elderly have been considered “honorable elders” who(59)a special place in the home, according to Linda G. Martin, author of(60)National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on Population.(61)the proportion of elderly living with their children(62)from 77% in 1970 to 65% in 1985.Increased(63)of middle-aged women, the traditional caretakers(64)the elderly, means that a(65)proportion of elderly Japanese can(66)upon care by family members. The proportion of married(67)of childbearing age planning to depend on their(68)for support in old(69)decreased from 55% in 1950 to 18% in 1988.(70)where such care is provided, there is some evidence of considerable family stress and poor quality of care.

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Tidal action is a very complicated phenomenon involving many factors all of which must be considered to predict tide in any one place and at any one time. The alternate rise and fall of the surface of the seas and the ocean is mainly caused by the attractive force of the moon alone. When the attraction is great, the tide is high; and conversely when the attraction is minimal, the tide is low. Between the high tide and the low tide is a period of a little over six hours, being called during its rise a flood tide, and during its fall an ebb tide.The sun also exerts its effect on the tide, being a little less than half as much as the moon, although it’s mass is so much greater. When the moon and the sun are horizontal, the highest high tide occurs and when they are vertical the lowest low tide takes place.The wind also plays an important part in the modification of the normal rise and fall of the tide. Thus these factors affect each other, either distracting or adding to the attractive forces to add or subtract from the height of the tide. But the tides still move inexorably on, rising twice a day, getting little later each day and posing a problem of correctly predicting their heights and lows.46. The principal ideas of the article concerns( ).47. Which of the following factors is NOT mentioned as affecting the tide?48. It can be concluded from the article that the attraction of the sun is( ).49. If the first high tide takes place at 1:00 a. m. the next high tide will probably take place at( ).50. According to the article, it is clear that the role of the moon( ).

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One of the qualities that most people admire in others is the willingness to admit one’s mistakes. It is extremely hard to sometimes to say a simple thing like “I was wrong about that,” and it is even harder to say “I was wrong, and you were right about that.”I had an experience recently with someone admitting to me that he had made a mistake fifteen years ago. He told me he had been the manager of a certain grocery store in the neighborhood where I grew up, and he asked me if I remembered the egg cartons. Then he related an incident and I began to remember vaguely the incident he was describing.I was about eight years old at the time, and I had gone into the store with my mother to do the weekly grocery shopping. On that particular day, I must have found my way to the dairy food department where the incident took place.There must have been a special sale on eggs that day because there was an impressive display of eggs in dozen and half-dozen cartons. The cartons were stacked three or four feet high. I must have stopped in front of a display to admire the stacks. Just then a woman came by pushing her grocery cart and knocked off the stacks of cartons. For some reasons, I decided it was up to me to put the display back together, so I went to work.The manager heard the noise, and came rushing over to see what had happened. When he appeared, I was on my knees inspecting some of the cartons to see if any of the eggs were broken, but to him it looked as though I was the culprit (罪人). He severely reprimanded me and wanted me to pay for any broken eggs. I protested my innocence and tried to explain, but it did no good. Even though I quickly forgot all about the incident, apparently the manager did not.41. How old was the author when he wrote this article?42. Who was to blame for knocking off the stacks of cartons?43. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE?44. Which of the following can serve as the best title of the passage?45. The tone of the article expresses the author’s( ).

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Woodcarving began as a necessity in America and developed into an art. Because of the lack of other materials, early settlers were forced to make tools and utensils out of wood. At first, these articles were whittled with a knife, but when pioneer craftsmen set up their primitive shops most of them were fashioned on a lathe—a machine which holds an object and rotates it while it is being shaped by a tool.However, even after Massachusetts-born Thomas Blanchard designed a lathe which could turn irregular shapes—an innovation that, made possible mass production of gunstocks, shoe lasts, oblong and square wood ware—craftsmen who could use knife and chisel skillfully were still in demand. Some found ready employment in shops of cabinet-makers and chair-makers, while others carved decoys (捕兽的圈套). Still others specialized in creating shop signs, ship figureheads, or in decorating interior woodwork. A few even accepted commissions to make busts(半身像) of prominent citizens.36. This passage most likely came from a longer work about early American( ).37. The passage suggests that the early shops for making tools were( ).38. It can be inferred from the passage that, before Thomas Blanchard’s invention, lathes( ).39. Which of the following object was an important wood-working tool used by early American craftsmen?40. According to the passage, when wooden articles began to be mass-produced, what did many individual wood-workers do?

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As protector of her family’s health, the pioneer woman confronted situations she never imagined before crossing the Mississippi. Few women came west prepared to deal with desert sunburn, rattlesnake bites, or arrow wounds. Even when doctors were available, they were often no more knowledgeable than their patients. And most patent medicines were no more reliable than the itinerant merchants who sold them.In certain cases, a woman could draw upon the folk wisdom and remedies she had learned back home; Western mosquitoes, for example, proved to be as repelled by a paste of vinegar and salt as were their Eastern cousins. More often, however, a woman was guided only by her own ingenuity in concocting tonics, powders, poisons, and polishes from whatever she had at hand; salt made a passable toothpaste; gunpowder was applied to warts, and turpentine(松节油) to open cuts; goose grease, skunk oil, and the ever-present lard were basic liniments; medical teas and tonics were brewed from sunflower seeds and roots.31. According to the passage, why were doctors in the west sometimes unable to help their patients?32. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about patent medicines?33. It can be inferred that most of the pioneers referred to in the passage were originally from where in the United States?34. All of the following were mentioned in the passage as being encountered by the pioneers EXCEPT( ).35. It can be inferred from the passage that in order to survive in the West, the pioneers had to be( ).

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Directions: This part consists of ten sentences. Each sentence has four parts underlined and labeled A, B, C and D. Identify the one choice that is not accepted in standard English and mark your choice by blackening the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.21. A few [A] naturally elements exist in such small [B] amounts that they are known [C] mainly from laboratory-made [D] samples.22. [A] To stay warm in cold weather, cold-blooded animals must expose [B] itself to [C] a source of warmth such as [D] direct sunlight.23. A severe illness [A] where she was [B] just nineteen months old [C] deprived Helen Keller [D] of both her sight and hearing.24. In [A] the wild, tea plants become [B] trees of [C] approximately thirty feet in [D]high.25. For many centuries, sailors [A] relied on echoes [B] to warn them of [C]another ships, icebergs, or cliffs in [D] foggy weather.26. [A] It is the [B] interaction between people, rather than the events that occur in their lives, [C] that are the main focus of [D] social psychology.27. It is true that [A] the rotation of the Earth [B] on its axis is responsible [C] with the alternation of periods [D] of light and darkness.28. One of the most difficult [A] questions [B] in defining sleep [C] is “What [D] is the functions of sleep?”29. Seven [A] of planets rotate in the same direction [B] as their orbital motions, [C] while Venus and Uranus rotate in the [D] opposite direction.30. The tongue is [A] capable of many [B] motions and configurations and plays [C] a vital role in chewing, [D] swallowed, and speaking.

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Man is realizing that the oceans are( )controlling factors in the weather.

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Our teacher was usually very kind so that his sudden( )greatly surprised us.

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Her husband is very( )electrician, he could repair all kinds of electric appliances.

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The noise was so( )that only those with excellent hearing were aware of it.

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Mary is so( )that she will believe anything you tell her.

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Even though the evidence is overwhelming, if one juror is still( ), the case must be retried.

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In my eyes, the old generation is always( ).

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During their first teaching training year, the students often visited local school for the( )of lessons.

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Since there was no place to take shelter, we got( )in the sudden downpour in no time.

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Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition about Competition and Cooperation in three paragraphs. You are given the first sentence of each paragraph and are required to develop its idea in completing the paragraph. Your part of the composition should be no less than 150 words, not including the words given. Remember to write clearly.Competition and Cooperation1. 竞争是普遍存在的一种社会现象,合作也是。2. 竞争与合作并不矛盾,可以兼容。3. 合作是为了更有效的竞争。

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西部开发中国改革开放以来,国民经济年均增长速度达到9.7%。中国已经发展成为一个全球极富吸引力的大市场。世界各国和地区不少有远见卓识的企业家,都将目光投向了中国投向了西部并从投资活动中获得了丰厚的回报。中国加入世贸组织后,外商参与中国西部开发的机会将越来越多。西部大开发一定能成为沟通世界各国和中国的一座桥梁,促进中国和世界经济共同发展、共同繁荣。

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