Hawaii’s native minority is demanding a greater degree of sovereignty over its own affairs. But much of the archipelago’s political establishment, which includes the White Americans who dominated until the Second World War and people of Japanese, Chinese and Filipino origin, is opposed to the idea.The islands were annexed by the US in 1898 and since then Hawaii’s native peoples have fared worse than any of its other ethnic groups. They make up over 60 percent of the state’s homeless, suffer higher levels of unemployment and their life span is five years less than the average Hawaiians. They are the only major US native group without some degree of autonomy.But a sovereignty advisory committee set up by Hawaii’s first native governor, John Waihee, has given the natives’ cause a major boost by recommending that the Hawaiian natives decided by themselves whether to reestablish a sovereign nation.However, the Hawaiian natives are not united in their demands. Some just want greater autonomy within the states—as enjoyed by many American Indian natives such as education. This is a position supported by the Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA), a state agency set up in 1978 to represent the natives’ interests and which has now become the moderate face of the native sovereignty movement. More ambitious is the Ka Lalui group, which declared itself a new nation in 1987 and wants full, official independence from the US.But if Hawaiian natives are given greater autonomy, it is far from clear how many people this will apply to. The state authorities only count as native those people with more than 50 percent Hawaiian blood.Native demands are not just based on political grievances, though. They also want their claim on 660,000 hectares of Hawaiian crown land to be accepted. It is on this issue that native groups are facing most opposition from the state authorities. In 1993, the state government paid the OHA US$136 million in back rent on the crown land and many officials say that by accepting this payment the agency has given up its claim to legally own the land. The OHA has vigorously disputed this.1. Which of the following statements is true of the Hawaiian natives?2. John Waihee’s attitude towards the native Hawaiians’ sovereignty movement can best be described as “______”.3. The Office of Hawaiian Affairs most wants to support the native Hawaiians to ______.4. According to the fifth paragraph, it is hard to determine ______.5. Concerning the Hawaiian crown land, what do the native Hawaiians demand from the government?
Women’s minds work differently from men’s. At least, that is what most men are convinced of. Psychologists view the subject either as a matter of frustration or a joke. Now the biologists have moved into this minefield, and some of them have found that there are real differences between the brains of men and women. But being different, they point out hurriedly, is not the same as being better or worse.There is, however, a definite structural variation between the male and female brain. The difference is in a part of the brain that is used in the most complex intellectual processes—the link between the two halves of the brain.The two halves are linked by a trunk line of between 200 and 300 million nerves, the corpus callosum. Scientists have found quite recently that the corpus callosum in women is always large and probably richer in nerve fibers than it is in men. This is the first time that structural difference has been found between the brains of men and women and it must have some significance. The question is “What” and if this difference exists, are there others? Research shows that present-day women think differently and behave differently from men. Are some of these differences biological and inborn and a result of evolution? We tend to think that it is the influence of society that produces these differences. But could we be wrong?Research showed that these two halves of the brain had different functions, and that the corpus callosum enabled them to work together. For most people, the left half is used for word-handling, analytical and logical activities; the right half works on pictures, patterns and forms. We need both halves working together. And the better the connections, the more harmoniously the two halves work. And, according to research findings, women have the better connection.But it isn’t all that easy to explain the actual differences between skills of men and women on this basis. In schools throughout the world girls tend to be better than boys at “language subjects” and boys better at math’s and physics. If these differences correspond with the differences in the hemispheric trunk line, there is an unalterable distinction between the sexes.We shan’t know for a while, partly because we don’t know of any precise relationship between abilities in school subjects and the functioning of the two halves of the brain, and we cannot understand how the two halves interact via corpus callosum. But this striking difference must have some effect and, because the difference is in the parts of the brain involving intellect, we should be looking for differences in intellectual processing.1. According to the passage, brain differences are caused by ______ factors.2. Which of the following best describes the psychologists’ attitude towards the issue that women’s minds are different from men’s?3. “These differences” in Paragraph 5 refers to those in ______.4. In the last paragraph, the author suggests more work on ______.5. What is the main purpose of the passage?
Clothes play a critical role in the conclusions we reach by providing clues to who people are, who they are not, and who they would like to be. They tell us a good deal about the wearer’s background, personality, status, mood and social outlook.Since clothes are such an important source of social information, we use them to manipulate people’s impression of us. Our appearance assumes particular significance in the initial phases of interaction that is likely to occur. An elderly middle-class man or woman may be alienated by a young adult who is dressed in an unconventional manner, regardless of the person’s education, background, or interests.People tend to agree on what certain types of clothes mean. Adolescent girls can easily agree on the lifestyles of girls who wear certain outfit, including the number of boyfriends they likely have had and whether they smoke or drink. Newscasters, or the announcers who read the news on TV, are considered to be more convincing, honest, and competent when they are dressed conservatively. And college students who view themselves as taking an active role in their interpersonal relationships say they are concerned about the costumes they must wear to play these roles successfully. Moreover, many of us can relate instances in which the clothes we wore changed the way we felt about ourselves and how we acted. Perhaps you have used clothing to gain confidence when you anticipated a stressful situation, such as a job interview, or a court appearance.In the workplace, men have long had well-defined precedents and role models for achieving success. It has been otherwise for women. A good many women in the business world are uncertain about the appropriate mixture of “masculine” and “feminine” attributes they should convey by their professional clothing. The variety of clothing alternatives to women has also been greater than that available for men. Male administrators tend to judge women more favorably for managerial positions when the women display less “feminine” grooming—shorter hair, moderate use of make-up, and plain tailored clothing. As one male administrator confessed, “An attractive woman is definitely going to get a longer interview, but she won’t get a job.”1. According to the second paragraph, an elderly middle-class man and an unconventionally dressed young man may be unable to ______.2. The author uses the newscasters’ example to illustrate the idea that ______.3. Men’s professional clothing can best be described as “______”.4. What can women do with their professional clothing according to the passage?5. What is the best title for the passage?
It is said that change characterizes our time, and this storm of change appears to be gathering force. What do you think of this major characteristic of our lifetime?Write an essay (no less than 250 words) to discuss how people in the 21st century can adapt themselves to the ever-changing society. The suggested title is Learn to Survive in a Changing Society.
The ability of falling cats to right themselves in midair and land on their feet has been a source of wonder for ages. Biologists long regarded it as an example of adaptation by natural selection, but for physicists it bordered on the miraculous.Newton’s laws of motion assume that the total amount of spin of a body cannot change unless an external torque speeds it up or slow it down. If a cat has no spin when it is released and experiences no external torque, it ought not to be able to twist around as it falls.In the speed of its execution, the righting of a tumbling cat resembles a magician’s trick. The gyrations of the cat in midair are too fast for the human eye to follow, so the process is obscured. Either the eye must be speeded up, or the cat’s fall slowed down for the phenomenon to be observed. A century ago the former was accomplished by means of high-speed photography using equipment now available in any pharmacy.But in the nineteenth century the capture on film of a falling cat constituted a scientific experiment. The experiment was described in a paper presented to the Paris Academy in 1894. Two sequences of twenty photographs each, one from the side and one from behind, show a white cat in the act of righting itself. Grainy and quaint though they are, the photos show that the cat was dropped upside down with no initial spin, and still landed on its feet. Careful analysis of the photos reveals the secret: As the cat rotates the front of its body clockwise, the rear and tail twist counterclockwise, so that the total spin remains zero, in perfect accord with Newton’s laws. Halfway down, the cat pulls in its legs before reversing its twist and then extends them again, with the desired end result.The explanation was that while nobody can acquire spin without torque, a flexible one can readily change its orientation, or phase. Cats know this instinctively, but scientists could not be sure how it happened until they increased the speed of their perceptions a thousand fold.