Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A],[B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.
Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike chain?
As Koziatek knows, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.
But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority. School in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype...that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,” he says.
On one hand, that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution. Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was. The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new principle. We want more for our kids, and rightfully so.
But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all—and the subtle devaluing of anything less—misses an important point: That’s not the only thing the American economy needs. Yes, a bachelor’s degree opens more doors. But even now,54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs, such as construction and high-skill manufacturing. But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.
In other words, at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head, frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing, one obvious solution is staring us in the face. There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them. Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.
Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all, it risks overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts.
21.A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students’lack of.
[A]practical ability [B] academic training
[C]pioneering spirit [D]mechanical memorization
22.There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who.
[A]have a stereotyped mind [B]have no career motivation
[C] are not academically successful [D] are financially disadvantaged
23.we can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates.
[A] used to have big financial concerns [B] used to have more job opportunities
[C] are reluctant to work in manufacturing [D] are entitled to more educational privileges
24.The headlong push into bachelors degrees for all.
[A]helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs
[B]may narrow the gap in working-class jobs
[C] is expected to yield a better-trained workforce
[D] indicates the overvaluing of higher education
25.The author’s attitude toward Koziatek’s school can be described as.
[A] supportive [B] tolerant
[C] disappointed [D] cautious
[解析]根据题干可知这是一道典型的例证题。根据题干关键词“a broken bike chain”定位到第二段第二句，向前找其论点句 “He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization， but practical。 由该句可知，在他(Mr。 Koziaek)任教的这个学校里，学习不是书本、测试和机械记忆这些事情，而是实践。所以举“a broken bike chain”的例子是说明学生们缺乏实践能力，选A选项 practical ability。
22、[答案][C]are not academically successful
[解析]根据题干可以定位到第四段，相关语句为“that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically，” he says。 其中，“can’t make it academically”就是对应答案C中的“are not academically successful”， 因此，正确答案为C 选项are not academically successful。
23、[答案][B]used to have more job opportunities
[解析]根据题干要求定位到第五段，解决本题的关键是对第三句话“The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated。”的理解，尤其需要注意本句的时态，定语从句“that the US economy once offered to high school graduates”是过去时态，表明“美国经济曾经为高中毕业生提供了工作保障”，而主句“The job security has largely evaporated”却是现在完成时，意为“这种工作保障在很大程度上已经蒸发了”，说明曾经的工作机会现在已经不再拥有了，故而[B]选项是正确选项。
24、[答案][D]indicates the overvaluing of higher education
[解析]根据题干关键词“headlong push”以及“bachelor’s degree”直接定位到文章第六段第一句话。根据第一句话“But the headlong push into bachelor’s degree for all—and the subtle devaluing of anything less—misses an important point： That’s not the only thing the American economy needs”(大力推动学士学位—以及低估其他任何方面—使得人们忽略了非常重要的一点：这并不是美国经济所唯一需要的)，可初步确定正确选项为D“indicates the overvaluing of higher education”(高估了高等教育)。另外，第二句先是认可了这种做法的好处：“Yes， a bachelor degree opens more doors”(学士学位为本科生打开了更多扇门)。但是，第三行最后出现转折词But，说明后面内容一定是负面情感取向，是“bachelor degree”没能解决的问题，因此，D选项为正确答案。
[解析]本题考查作者的态度。一般最后一段凸显作者的态度， 第一句话“Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call。”说明“Koziatek学校为我们敲响了警钟”。第二句话“When education becomes one-size-fits-all， it risks overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts”表明“当教育适合所有人的时候，它同样也造成一种危险，即容易忽视国家的人才多元化。”同时我们也注意到第七段最后一句话说“… is to fill the gap。”(Koziatek学校正试图填补这一空白)， 说明作者的态度是支持性的，即supportive。因此，A选项是正确答案。
While fossil fuels—coal，oil，gas—still generate roughly 85 percent of the world’s energy supply, it's clearer than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and solar. The move to renewables is picking up momentum around the world：They now account for more than half of new power sources going on line.
Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund cleaner energy sources. But increasingly the story is about the plummeting prices of renewables，especially wind and solar. The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years.
In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source. In Scotland，for example，wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes. While the rest of the world takes the lead，notably China and Europe，the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift. In March，for the first time，wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the US，reported the US Energy Information Administration.
President Trump has underlined fossil fuels—especially coal—as the path to economic growth. In a recent speech in Iowa，he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source. But that message did not play well with many in Iowa，where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state’s electricity generation—and where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.
The question“ what happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine?” has provided a quick put-down for skeptics. But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.
The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturers，who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles. Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now, this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.
While there’s a long way to go，the trend lines for renewables are spiking. The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up—perhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change. What Washington does—or doesn’t do—to promote alternative energy may mean less and less at a time of a global shift in thought.
26.The word “plummeting”(Line 3，Para.2)is closest in meaning to.
27.According to Paragraph 3，the use of renewable energy in America.
[A]is progressing notably [B]is as extensive as in Europe
[C]faces many challenges [D]has proved to be impractical
28.It can be learned that in Iowa, .
[A]wind is a widely used energy source
[B]wind energy has replaced fossil fuels
[C]tech giants are investing in clean energy
[D]there is a shortage of clean energy supply
29.Which of the following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6?
[A]Its application has boosted battery storage.
[B]It is commonly used in car manufacturing.
[C]Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.
[D]Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult.
30.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy.
[A]will bring the US closer to other countries
[B]will accelerate global environmental change
[C]is not really encouraged by the US government
[D]is not competitive enough with regard to its cost
[解析]词汇释义题。根据论点论据关系，二段最后一句话证明but之后的论点句。由第二段最后一句得知在过去8年中，solar panels (太阳电池板)和wind turbines (风轮机)成本分别下降了80%和约1/3，故可推知可再生能源的价格会下降，故C项failing正确。
27、[答案][A]is progressing notably
[解析]逻辑推理题。根据题干应该定位到三段第三句话。本段第三句说“其他国家在清洁能源发展方面保持领先(takes the lead)，美国也看到了显著的变化”，also提示我们美国和其他国家的情况应该有相似之处。再结合后一句中的数据，可确定美国可再生能源的使用正稳步发展，A项正确。
28、[答案][A]wind is a widely used energy source
29、[答案][C]Its continuous supply is becoming a reality
[解析]双段推理题。根据提干关键词Paragraph 5&6定位到5、6段，双段推理题应该优先考虑双段主旨。第5段中心为关键信息词but之后的内容。文中a boost in the storage capacity of batteries keeps power flowing around the clock对应选项中的its continuous supply; is becoming a reality对应文中is making their ability to。。。。同样，第6段可以验证。6段中心为最后一句话Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now， this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years， 也说明这件事在未来可能成为现实。
30、[答案][C]is not really encouraged by the US government
[解析]推理判断题。根据提干关键词the last paragraph定位到文中最后一段，最后一段关键信息词while(尽管)引导的内容为重点信息：“尽管还有很长的路要走，这种趋势势不可挡”，故可以排除D： is not competitive enough with regard to its cost。而根据第二句“have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change”故排除B： will accelerate global environmental change。文章最后一句“what Washington does—or doesn’t do—to promote alternative energy may mean less at a time of a global shift in thought。”“无论华盛顿行动还是不行动越来越不重要了”，可以推测出美国政府的态度，因此选C。
The power and ambition of the giants of the digital economy is astonishing—Amazon has just announced the purchase of the upmarket grocery chain Whole Foods for$13.5bn，but two years ago Facebook paid even more than that to acquire the WhatsApp messaging service，which doesn’t have any physical product at all. What WhatsApp offered Facebook was an intricate and finely detailed web of its users’ friendships and social lives.
Facebook promised the European commission then that it would not link phone numbers to Facebook identities，but it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through. Even without knowing what was in the messages，the knowledge of who sent them and to whom was enormously revealing and still could be. What political journalist，what party whip，would not want to know the makeup of the WhatsApp groups in which Theresa May’s enemies are currently plotting? It may be that the value of Whole Foods to Amazon is not so much the 460 shops it owns, but the records of which customers have purchased what.
Competition law appears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power. But it is clumsy. For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy. By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied it may have vanished in the marketplace, to be replaced by new abuses of power. But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too. Competition law as presently interpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this is not obvious when the users of these services don’t pay for them. The users of their services are not their customers. That would be the people who buy advertising from them—and Facebook and Google，the two virtual giants，dominate digital advertising to the disadvantage of all other media and entertainment companies.
The product they’re selling is data，and we，the users，convert our lives to data for the benefit of the digital giants. Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphids for the honeydew they produce when they feed, so Google farms us for the data that our digital lives yield. Ants keep predatory insects away from where their aphids feed; Gmail keeps the spammers out of our inboxes. It doesn’t feel like a human or democratic relationship，even if both sides benefit.
31. According to Paragraph 1, Facebook acquired WhatsApp for its.
[A]digital products [B]user information
[C]physical assets [D]quality service
32.Linking phone numbers to Facebook identities may.
[A]worsen political disputes [B]mess up customer records
[C]pose a risk to Facebook users [D]mislead the European commission
33.According to the author, competition law.
[A]should serve the new market powers
[B]may worsen the economic imbalance
[C]should not provide just one legal solution
[D]cannot keep pace with the changing market
34.Competition law as presently interpreted can hardly protect Facebook users because.
[A]they are not defined as customers [B]they are not financially reliable
[C]the services are generally digital [D]the services are paid for by advertisers
35.The ants analogy is used to illustrate.
[A]a win-win business model between digital giants
[B]a typical competition pattern among digital giants
[C]the benefits provided for digital giants’ customers
[D]the relationship between digital giants and their users
[解析]细节题。题干问：根据第一段，脸谱收购WhatsApp 应用的目的是为了什么，由此定位于文章第一段，本段第一句末说脸谱出巨资购买的应用是一种messaging service，就是信息服务，而紧接着本段最后一句话说明WhatsApp 应用提供的这种信息服务实际上是一种intricate and finely detailed web of its users’ friendships and social lives，复杂的和极其详细的用户朋友圈和社交生活的方面的信息。答案B正是这句话的同义改写。
32、[答案][C]pose a risk to Facebook users
[解析]细节题。根据题干中的关键词Linking phone numbers to Facebook identities定位于文章第二段。本段中的第二句话指出“即使不知道具体的信息内容是什么，知道了信息是谁发的和信息发给谁也有可能透露客户隐私”。也就是说，绑定电话号码和脸谱身份的做法极有可能泄露客户隐私，增加客户的个人信息风险。答案C正是这句话的概括。
33、[答案][D]cannot keep pace with the changing market
[解析]细节题。根据题干回文定位到文章第三段，第三句话“it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy。”意为：对比数码经济中变化的速度，它是很缓慢的，cannot keep pace with 是选项中slow的同义替换，因此正确答案为选项D。
34、[答案][D]the services are paid for by advertisers
[解析]因果细节题。根据题干回文定位到第三段第六句话，其中it is not obvious是题干can hardly protect的同义替换。后文中指出when the users of these services don’t pay for it， 表明这种情况发生的原因是这些服务的用户没有付款，而真正付款的是advertisers，因此正确答案为D。
35、[答案][D]the relationship between digital giants and their users
To combat the trap of putting a premium on being busy, Cal Newport, author of Deep work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World, recommends building a habit of “deep work”—the ability to focus without distraction.
There are a number of approaches to mastering the art of deep work—be it lengthy retreats dedicated to a specific task; developing a daily ritual; or taking a “journalistic” approach to seizing moments of deep work when you can throughout the day. Whichever approach, the key is to determine your length of focus time and stick to it.
Newport also recommends “deep scheduling” to combat constant interruptions and get more done in less time.“At any given point, I should have deep work scheduled for roughly the next month. Once on the calendar I protect this time like I would a doctor’s appointment or important meeting”, he writes.
Another approach to getting more done in less time is to rethink how you prioritize your day—in particular how we craft our to-do lists. Tim Harford, author of Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives, points to a study in the early 1980s that divided undergraduates into two groups: some were advised to set out monthly goals and study activities; others were told to plan activities and goals in much more detail, day by day.
While the researchers assumed that the well-structured daily plans would be most effective when it came to the execution of tasks, they were wrong: the detailed daily plans demotivated students. Harford argues that inevitable distractions often render the daily to-do list ineffective, while leaving room for improvisation in such a list can reap the best results.
In order to make the most of our focus and energy. we also need to embrace downtime, or as Newport suggests, “be lazy.”
“Idleness is not just a vacation, an indulgence or a vice; it is as indispensable to be brain as Vitamin D is to the body...[idleness]is, paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done,” he argues.
Srini Pillay, an assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, believes this counter-intuitive link between downtime and productivity may be due to the way our brains operate When our brains switch between being focused and unfocused on a task, they tend to be more efficient.
“What people don’t realise is that in order to complete these tasks they need to use both the focus and unfocus circuits in their brain”.says Pillay.
36. The key to mastering the art of deep work is to ________.
[A] keep to your focus time [B]list your immediate tasks
[C]make specific daily plans [D]seize every minute to work
37. The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that ________.
[A] distractions may actually increase efficiency
[B]daily schedules are indispensable to studying
[C]students are hardly motivated by monthly goals
[D]detailed plans many not be as fruitful as expected
38. According to Newport, idleness is ________.
[A] a desirable mental state for busy people
[B]a major contributor to physical health
[C]an effective way to save time and energy
[D]an essential factor in accomplishing any work
39. Pillay believes that our brains’ shift between being focused and unfocused _______.
[A] can result in psychological well-being
[B]can bring about greater efficiency
[C]is aimed at better balance in work
[D]is driven by task urgency
40.This text is mainly about _______.
[A] ways to relieve the tension of busy life
[B]approaches to getting more done in less time
[C]the key to eliminating distractions
[D]the cause of the lack of focus time
36、[答案][A]keep to your focus time
[解析]这是一道细节题。注意题干的一一对应，选项进行等价替换。根据题干定位到第二段最后一句。The key is to(题干对应) determine your length of focus time and stick to it(剩余信息为答案)。 对应选项 keep to(stick to)your focus time(your length of focus time)
37、[答案][D]detailed plans may not be as fruitful as expected
[解析]根据题干为细节题，考察的是实验结论。The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that， 根据1980s和Harford快速找到定位第四段第二句，那么结论应该在后面，也就是第五段。第五段开头第一句while为让步，看主句部分they were wrong，冒号后面解释说，the detailed daily plans demotivated students。对应D选项，其中的may not be as fruitful对应demotivated。
38、[答案][D]an essential factor in accomplishing any work
[解析]这是一道细节题。根据提干中的关键词，Newport和idleness，回文定位到第6段的Newport和第7段idleness，再结合第7段段末代词he， 考查到代词的指代问题，根据上下文确定此处的he指代Newport，确定第7段引号之内即为作者对于“idleness”的观点，由第7段后半句 idleness is ，paradoxically， necessary to getting any work done得出正确答案为 an essential factor in accomplishing any work，其中essential 是对原文necessary的同义替换，accomplishing any work是getting any work done的同义替换。
39、[答案][B]can bring about greater efficiency
[解析]这是一道人物观点题，根据提干中的关键词，Pillay 回文定位到第8段，再进一步匹配题干中的剩余信息，our brains’ shift between being focused and unfocused定位至第8段段末处，our brains switch between being focused and unfocused，其中shift是switch的同义替换，由后半句 they tend to be more efficient得出正确答案为 can bring about greater effcieny， 是对原文tend to be more efficient的同义替换。
40、[答案][B]approaches to getting more done in less time
[解析]根据题干的特征，这是一道主旨题。文章开篇提出主题，关于“the ability to focus without distraction”， 第二段开头说“a number of approaches”， 提出方法，第四段开头another approach，所以这篇文章重点还是在说方法，所以B选项approaches to getting more done in less time为正确答案。more done in less time对应focus without distraction。
Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subtitles from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph(41-45).There are two extra subtitles which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
A. Just say it
B. Be present
C. Pay a unique compliment
D. Name, places, things
E. Find the “me too” s
F. Skip the small talk
G. Ask for an opinion
Five ways to make conversation with anyone
Conversations are links, which means when you have a conversation with a new person a link gets formed and every conversation you have after that moment will strengthen the link.
You meet new people every day: the grocery worker, the cab driver, new people at work or the security guard at the door. Simply starting a conversation with them will form a link.
Here are five simple ways that you can make the first move and start a conversation with strangers.
Suppose you are in a room with someone you don’t know and something within you says “I want to talk with this person”—this is something the mostly happens with all of us. You wanted to say something—the first word—but it just won’t come out. It feels like it is stuck somewhere, I know the feeling and here is my advice just get it out.
Just think: that is the worst that could happen? They won’t talk with you? Well, they are not talking with you now!
I truly believe that once you get that first word out everything else will just flow. So keep it simple: “Hi”, “Hey” or “Hello”—do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you can, put on a big smile and say “Hi”。
It’s a problem all of us face: you have limited time with the person that you want to talk with and you want to make this talk memorable.
Honestly, if we got stuck in the rut of “hi”, “hello”, “how are you?” and “what’s going on?”you will fail to give the initial jolt to the conversation that’s can make it so memorable.
So don’t be afraid to ask more personal questions. Trust me, you’ll be surprised to see how much people are willing to share if you just ask.
When you meet a person for the first time, make an effort to find the things which you and that person have in common so that you can build the conversation from that point. When you start conversation from there and then move outwards, you’ll find all of a sudden that the conversation becomes a lot easier.
Imagine you are pouring your heart out to someone and they are just busy on their phone, and if you ask for their attention you get the response “I can multitask”.
So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication wholeheartedly. Make eye contact, you can feel the conversation.
You all came into a conversation where you first met the person, but after some time you may have met again and have forgotten their names. Isn’t that awkward!
So remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places they have been to the place they want to go, the things they like, the thing the hate—whatever you talk about.
When you remember such thing you can automatically become investor in their wellbeing. So the feel a responsibility to you to keep that relationship going.
That’s it. Five amazing ways that you can make conversation with almost anyone. Every person is a really good book to read, or to have a conversation with!
41、[答案][A](Just say it)
[解析]从下方段落中看到I truly believe that once you get that first word out everything else will just flow。 So keep it simple： “Hi”， “Hey” or “Hello”——do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you can， put on a big smile and say “Hi”。 中我们不难发现重复的内容say “Hi”， 也相当于get that first word out， 共同表达的内容就是开口说，故A (Just say it开口说) 与之完美对应。
42、[答案][G](Ask for an opinion)
[解析]从下方段落中出现So don’t be afraid to ask more personal questions。 Trust me， you’ll be surprised to see how much people are willing to share if you just ask。 中我们不难发现重复的内容ask， 根据复现词我们不难找到G (Ask for an opinion询问看法)，与其后的“how much people are willing to share”(人们非常愿意分享)完美对应。
43、[答案][E](Find the“me too”s)
[解析]从下方对应段落When you meet a person for the first time， make an effort to find the things which you and that person have in common so that you can build the conversation from that point…中我们找到关键词have … in common有共同点。这与E (Find the “me too”s 寻找共同点)完美对应。
[解析]从下方对应段落So when someone tries to communicate with you， just be in that communication wholeheartedly。 因此当有人跟你跟你聊天时，要全身心的投入到谈话中，以及后面复现词eye contact进行眼神交流，我们找到B (Be present，在现场，投入当前事件中)能够与之对应。
[解析]从下方对应段落…but after some time you may have met again and have forgotten their name。 Isn’t that awkward! …但是之后你可能再次见到时忘记了他们的名字。这不是很尴尬吗?通过反义疑问我们得知：应该要记得名字!而且随后So， remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places they have been to， the places they want to go， the things they like， the things they hate。因此，请记得你遇到且与之聊过天的这些人的一些小细节，比如他们去过的地方，他们想要去的地方，他们喜欢的以及讨厌的事物等等。从这些内容中我们不难找到与之对应的小标题D (Name， places， things)