PART I: Cloze (20 points)
Directions: Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank.
Production workers must be able to do statistical quality control. Production workers must be able to do just-in-time inventories. Managers are increasingly shifting from a "don't think, do what you are told" to a "think, I am not going to tell you what to do" style of management.
This shift occurs not because today's managers are more ___(1)___ than yesterday's managers,but because the evidence is mounting that the second style of management is more ___(2)___ than the first style of management. But this means that problems of training and motivating the work force both become more central and require different models of behavior.
To be on top of this situation, tomorrow's managers will have to have strong background in organizational psychology, human relations, and labor ___(3)___. The MIT Sloan School of quickly management attempts to ___(4)___ our understanding in these areas through research and then quickly bring the ___(5)___ of this new research to our students so that they can be leading-edge managers when it comes to the human side of the equation.
The first three decades after World War II were ___(6)___ in ___(7)___ the United States had a huge technological lead ___(8)___ all the rest in the world. In a very real sense, ___(9)___ technological competitive. American firms did not have to worry about their technological competitiveness because they were ___(10)___.
But that world has disappeared. Today we live in a world where American firms ___(11)___ have automatic technological ___(12)___. In some areas they are still ahead, in some areas they are ___(13)___, and in some areas they are behind, but on average, they are average.
___(14)___ this means is that American managers have to understand the forces of technical change in ways ___(15)___ were not necessary in the past. Conversely, managers from the rest of the world know that it is now possible for them to dominate their American competitors if they understand the forces of technical change better than their American competitors do.
In the world of tomorrow managers cannot be technologically ___(16)___ ___(17)___ their functional tasks within the firm. They don't have to be scientists or engineers inventing new technologies, ___(18)___ they have to be managers who understand when to bet and when not bet on new technologies. If they ___(19)___ what is going on and technology effectively becomes a black box, they ___(20)___ to make the changes. They will be losers, not winners.
1. a. enlightened b. enlightening c. enlightenment d. enlighten
2. a. sterile b. producing c. productive d. extravagant
3. a. economics b. economic c. economy d. economies
4. a. take b. arouse c. rise d. advance
5. a. results b. evidence c. content d. fruits
6. a. usual b. flawed c. unusual d. unessential
7. a. which b. / c. that d. those
8. a. by b. over c. on d. upon
9. a. was the world not b. the world was not
c. did the world be not d. was not the world
10. a. superior b. super c. inferior d. junior
11. a. still b. even c. neither d. no longer
12. a. superiority b. inferiority c. majority d. minority
13. a. common b. average c. ignorant d. exceptional
14. a. How b. That c. What d. Which
15. a. that b. they c. those d. who
16. a. illiterate b. sophisticated c. literate d. omniscient
17. a. regardless b. in spite of c. despite d. regardless of
18. a. and b. likewise c. furthermore d. but
19. a. didn’t understand b. don't understand
c. haven’t understood d. hadn’t understood
20. a. failed b. would have failed
c. would fail d. would be failed