Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. （40 points）
Every Saturday morning, at 9 a.m., more than 50,000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park. The Parkrun phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad. Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers. Runners range from four years old to grandparents; their times range from Andrew Baddeley's world record 13 minutes 48 seconds up to an hour.
Parkrun is succeeding where London's Olympic “legacy” is failing. Ten years ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30th Olympiad would be in London. Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Games would be to level a nation of sport lovers away from their couches. The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened. The number of adults doing weekly sport did rise, by nearly 2 million in the run－up to 2012－but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. The opposition claims primary school pupils doing at least two hours of sport a week have nearly halved. Obesity has risen among adults and children. Official retrospections continue as to why London 2012 failed to “inspire a generation.” The success of Parkrun offers answers.
Parkun is not a race but a time trial: Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining. The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing sports and to produce more elite athletes. The dual aim was mixed up: The stress on success over taking part was intimidating for newcomers.
Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a fundamentally “grassroots”, concept as community sports associations. If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods－making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive. Or at least not make them worse.
21. According to Paragraph1, Parkrun has_____.
A．gained great popularityB．created many jobs
C．strengthened community tiesD．become an official festival 22. The author believes that London's Olympic "legacy" has failed to_____.
A．boost population growthB．promote sport participation
C．improve the city's imageD．increase sport hours in schools
23. Parkrun is different from Olympic games in that it_____.
A．aims at discovering talentsB．focuses on mass competition
C．does not emphasize elitismD．does not attract first-timers
24. With regard to mass sport, the author holds that governments should_____.
A．organize "grassroots" sports eventsB．supervise local sports associations
C．increase funds for sports clubsD．invest in public sports facilities
25. The author's attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is_____.
A．Tolerant B．Critical C．Uncertain D．sympathetic
21.[答案][A]gained great popularity
22.[答案][B]promote sport participation
[解析]通过题干伦敦和奥林匹克遗产可以定位到第二段，题目问的是伦敦奥运会的遗产没有做成什么事，题干中的failed to可以对应第二段即使看到了failing，但并没有答案。再往下看，伦敦奥运会承诺，人口将会更健康、更多冠军，但这并没有发生，not happed才真正对应failed to.
23.[答案][C]does not emphasize elitism
24.[答案][D]invest in public sports facilities
With so much focus on children’s use of screens, it's easy for parents to forget about their own screen use. “Tech is designed to really suck on you in,” says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, "and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine.”
Radesky has studied the use of mobile phones and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children. During a separate observation, she saw that phones became a source of tension in the family. Parents would be looking at their emails while the children would be making excited bids for their attention.
Infants are wired to look at parents’ faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces are blank and unresponsive—as they often are when absorbed in a device－it can be extremely disconcerting foe the children. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” devised by developmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s. In it, a mother is asked to interact with her child in a normal way before putting on a blank expression and not giving them any visual social feedback; The child becomes increasingly distressed as she tries to capture her mother’s attention. “Parents don't have to be exquisitely parents at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbal expressions of an emotional need,” says Radesky.
On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids' use of screens are born out of an “oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting” with their children: “It’s based on a somewhat fantasized, very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you’re failing to expose your child to 30,000 words you are neglecting them.” Tronick believes that just because a child isn’t learning from the screen doesn’t mean there’s no value to it－particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot out of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way. This can make them feel happier, which lets then be more available to their child the rest of the time.
26. According to Jenny Radesky, digital products are designed to ______.
A．simplify routine mattersB．absorb user attention
C．better interpersonal relationsD．increase work efficiency
27. Radesky’s food-testing exercise shows that mothers’ use of devices ______.
A．takes away babies’ appetiteB．distracts children’s attention
C．slows down babies’ verbal developmentD．reduces mother-child communication
28. Radesky’s cites the “still face experiment” to show that _______.
A．it is easy for children to get used to blank expressions
B．verbal expressions are unnecessary for emotional exchange
C．children are insensitive to changes in their parents’ mood
D．parents need to respond to children's emotional needs
29. The oppressive ideology mentioned by Tronick requires parents to_______.
A．protect kids from exposure to wild fantasiesB．teach their kids at least 30,000 words a year
C．ensure constant interaction with their childrenD．remain concerned about kid's use of screens
30. According to Tronick, kid’s use of screens may_______.
A．give their parents some free timeB．make their parents more creative
C．help them with their homeworkD．help them become more attentive
26.【答案】[B]absorb user attention
【解析】由题干中的关键词Jenny Radesky, 可以快速的定位到文中提到此人物的第一段第二行，接着题干中说digital products are designed to..可以知道，考查的是数码产品的目的，回归到文中第一段第二行，可知Jenny Radesky说了这样一句话：Tech is designed to really suck on you in, and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement....电子产品就是为了促进最大程度的参与性，由此可以得出答案B为了吸引用户的注意力。其余选项在Jenny Radesky的话中都没有体现。
27.【答案】[D]reduces mother-child communication
【解析】由题干中的关键词food-testing exercise, mother’s use of devices. 可以快速的定位到第二段第二行:She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children. 从这里可以知道，母亲使用手机会减少20%的语言交流机会，39%的非语言交流。由此可以得出答案为D.减少了母亲和孩子之间的交流。
28.【答案】[D]parents need to respond to children's emotional needs
【解析】本题目是具体细节题。题干中的关键词Radesky和still face experiment定位到倒数第三段大写R处，题目问实验一定要找实验结论，结论在本段最后一句的but之后，这里提到了parents need be to responsive ...to...emotional need，父母需要对情感需求做出回应。正确答案D是原文的原词复现。干扰项A的blank expressions是原文实验里面的具体内容，非实验表明;选项B是最后一句的个别词干扰;选项C偷换概念，不是children are insensitive，而是parents。
29.【答案】[C]ensure constant interaction with their children
【解析】本题目为具体细节题。根据题干的关键词oppressive ideology和大写字母Tronick定位到最后一段的第一句话that之后。本句that后的demands对应题干的requires，说道“父母应该总是要交流”。正确选项C的constant interaction对应原文的always interacting。干扰项A的fantasies是定位句下一句中的个别词干扰;选项B的30000words同样是定位句之后的句子中提到的，而且是if的一个条件句;选项D的concerned是末段首句的concerned，但是偷换概念。
30.【答案】[A]give their parents some free time
【解析】本题目为文中人物观点的细节题。根据题干中的大写字母Tronick及关键词kid定位到最后一段的倒数第三句，破折号后面解释了kid’s use of screens的具体目的。“it gives parents time to...”与正确选项A完全一致，属于原文的原词复现。干扰项B的creative并未提及;选项C的homework根据原文的housework进行干扰，原文是父母有时间做家务，而选项是帮助孩子做作业;选项D的attentive并未提及。
Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often causes students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year. After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn't it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn't feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn’t academic.
But while this may be true, it’s not a good enough reason to condemn gap years. There's always a constant fear of falling behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated “race to the finish line,” whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or lucrative career. But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits－in fact, it probably enhances it.
Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not. Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes－all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.
If you’re not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once. This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school, it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game. At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on.
31. One of the reasons for high-school graduates not taking a gap year is that_____.
A．they think it academically misleadingB．they have a lot of fun to expect in college
C．it feels strange to do differently from othersD．it seems worthless to take off-campus courses
32. Studies from the US and Australia imply that taking a gap year helps_____.
A．keep students from being unrealisticB．lower risks in choosing careers
C．ease freshmen’s financial burdensD．relieve freshmen of pressures
33. The word “acclimation”（Line 8, Para. 3） is closest in meaning to_____.
34. A gap year may save money for students by helping them_____.
A．avoid academic failuresB．establish long-term goals
C．switch to another collegeD．decide on the right major
35. The most suitable title for this text would be_____.
A．In Favor of the Gap YearB．The ABCs of the Gap Year
C．The Gap Year Comes BackD．The Gap Year: A Dilemma
31.【答案】[C]it feels strange to do differently from others
【解析】题目问的是高中毕业生不选择间隔年原因之一是什么。根据题目中的high-school和gap year和定位到第一段第一句话。这句话后面一句的after all可以知道后面应该是解释理由了，After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn't it?这句话是说如果大家秋天都上大学去了，你要是晚了一年看起来有点傻。这个句子等同于C选项中的feel strange to do differently from others，因此选C。
32.【答案】[D]relieve freshmen of pressures
【解析】根据题目中的study from the Australia and US可以定位到第三段第一句话Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not.。这句话明确说了有间隔年的学生比没有的要好，好在准备和表现上。所以A：unrealistic和B：choosing career不对。第二句在表现好的更细致地方面进行了描述：preparing them for independence独立性, new responsibilities责任感 and environmental changes环境变化。紧随的破折号后总结说了这是 first-year students一年级学生 often struggle with the most常常有苦恼的。说明最受益的是大学一年级学生，而整段都没提过financial burdens，所以C不对。而D中的pressure是对前面内容的概括性描述，因此答案是D。
【解析】这题根据题干中给的信息，到第三段最后一句中去找答案，Gap year experiences can...when it comes to adjusting to college..., making it easier to...rather than acclimation blunders.这个句子分两部分，逗号+making分词作状语，从功能上是解释补充说明前面半句，所以间隔年的好处是能帮助新生调节适应大学，而不用担心acclimation 问题，所以acclimation当然就是适应的意思了。因此A为正确答案。
34.【答案】[D]decide on the right major
【解析】文章最后一段第一句提到了consider its financial impact on future academic choices。Financial 对应题干中的save money，而academic choices学术选择可以排除A和B。根据最后一段第三句...students...listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes.所以第一句中的academic choices指的就是转专业的事儿，因此选D。
35.【答案】[A]In Favor of the Gap Year
【解析】第二段第一句话But while this may be true, it's not a good enough reason to condemn gap years.就用but句说明了全文就是想说间隔年你值得拥有。而选项中只有A选项in favor of是持正面积极态度的，因此选A。
Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management.
In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires－nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency's other work－such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep－that affect the lives of all Americans.
Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts. As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?
“It’s already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country,” he says. We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like, “Wait a minute, is this OK?”“Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?”
Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say.
For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive. Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change－how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.
While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation.
“The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways," he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to "an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited.”
At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado. But acknowledging fire's inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says.
“We’ve disconnected ourselves from living with fire,” Balch says. “It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today.”
36. More frequent wildfires have become a national concern because in 2015 they_____.
A．exhausted unprecedented management effortsB．consumed a record-high percentage of budget
C．severely damaged the ecology of western statesD．caused a huge rise of infrastructure expenditure
37. Moritz calls for the use of "a magnifying glass" to _____.
A．raise more funds for fire-prone areasB．avoid the redirection of federal money
C．find wildfire-free parts of the landscapeD．guarantee safer spending of public funds
38. While admitting that climate is a key element, Moritz notes that _____.
A．public debates have not settled yetB．fire-fighting conditions are improving
C．other factors should not be overlookedD．a shift in the view of fire has taken place
39. The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to _____.
A．discover the fundamental makeup of natureB．explore the mechanism of the human systems
C．maximize the role of landscape in human lifeD．understand the interrelations of man and nature
40. Professor Balch points out that fire is something man should _____.
A．do away withB．come to terms with
C．pay a price forD．keep away from
36.【答案】[B]consumed a record-high percentage of budget
【解析】本题目是原因细节题。根据题干的关键词wildfires和national concern，以及时间词2015，定位到第二段首句。本句提到US花费了大量的budget，与选项B中的budget原词复现，high是原文more than的同义转化，consume同义替换原文spent。干扰项A的management是首段末句的人物Max Moritz的职位;选项C的western states是首段首句的though从句内容，和题干无关，属于答非所问;选项D的infrastructure是原文末尾的破折号里such as的内容，两个破折号里面一定不选。
37.【答案】[D]guarantee safer spending of public funds
【解析】本题目为具体细节题。根据题干的关键词a magnifying glass和大写字母Moritz定位到第四段第二句，目的就是最后一句。本句提到“to redirect those funds”，基金重新引导，本段首句也提及a huge problem from...public expenditure。正确答案D的guarantee safer spending是对这两句的完全概括，讨论公共基金更好的花费问题。干扰项A提到fund，但未说raise more，添加无关内容;选项B与原文刚好相反，不是avoid避免;选项C是对原文lower-hazard parts of the landscape的偷换概念。
38.【答案】[C]other factors should not be overlooked
【解析】本题是文中人物观点的细节题。根据题干的关键词climate is a key element及大写字母Moritz定位到第7段的内容。本句中Moritz提到“should not come at the expense of the equation”，不以平等的代价而来。正确答案A中的不应该忽视其他因素是对本句的同义转化与概括。干扰项A的public debates来自第6段的the focus但未提及settle的话题，也非本题定位句;干扰项B的conditions是第6段的最后一句conditions that worsen fires，偷换动词worsen与improving;选项D的a shift in the view of是出现在第五段，时态错误，原文是would require，选项是has taken place。
39.【答案】[D]understand the interrelations of man and nature
【解析】本题目为原因细节题。根据题干关键词simplified view Moritz定位到第8段的首句，“the human systems and the landscapes... are linked and the interactions go both ways”,人类与环境是相联系的，并且是相互作用的。正确答案D的interactions是原文的原词复现，man and nature同义替换原文的human... and landscapes。干扰项A原文未提及;选项B的human systems是原词，但是并无mechanism偷换概念;选项C的landscape和human是原词出现，但添加无关信息maximize。
40.【答案】[B]come to terms with
【解析】本题目为文中人物观点的细节题。根据题干的大写字母Professor Balch和fire，man定位到最后一段的最后一句，“important to understand...human connection with fire”，人与火之间的联系。正确答案B的意思是达成协议，符合原文。干扰项A的do away with是废除;选项C的pay a price for是付出代价;选项D的keep away from远离。
Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. （10 points）
The decline in American manufacturing is a common refrain, particularly from Donald Trump. “We don't make anything anymore,” he told Fox News, while defending his own made-in-Mexico clothing line.
Without question, manufacturing has taken a significant hit during recent decades, and further trade deals raise questions about whether new shocks could hit manufacturing.
But there is also a different way to look at the data.Across the country, factory owners are now grappling with a new challenge: instead of having too many workers, they may end up with too few. Despite trade competition and outsourcing, American manufacturing still needs to replace tens of thousands of retiring boomers every years. Millennials may not be that interested in taking their place, other industries are recruiting them with similar or better pay.
For factory owners, it all adds up to stiff competition for workers－and upward pressure on wages. “They’re harder to find and they have job offers,” says Jay Dunwell, president of Wolverine Coil Spring, a family-owned firm, “They may be coming [into the workforce], but they've been plucked by other industries that are also doing an well as manufacturing,” Mr. Dunwell has begun bringing high school juniors to the factory so they can get exposed to its culture.
At RoMan Manufacturing, a maker of electrical transformers and welding equipment that his father cofounded in 1980, Robert Roth keep a close eye on the age of his nearly 200 workers, five are retiring this year. Mr. Roth has three community-college students enrolled in a work-placement program, with a starting wage of $13 an hour that rises to $17 after two years.
At a worktable inside the transformer plant, young Jason Stenquist looks flustered by the copper coils he's trying to assemble and the arrival of two visitors. It's his first week on the job. Asked about his choice of career, he says at high school he considered medical school before switching to electrical engineering. "I love working with tools. I love creating." he says.
But to win over these young workers, manufacturers have to clear another major hurdle: parents, who lived through the worst US economic downturn since the Great Depression, telling them to avoid the factory. Millennials "remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession," says Birgit Klohs, chief executive of The Right Place, a business development agency for western Michigan.
These concerns aren’t misplaced: Employment in manufacturing has fallen from 17 million in 1970 to 12 million in 2013. When the recovery began, worker shortages first appeared in the high-skilled trades. Now shortages are appearing at the mid-skill levels.
“The gap is between the jobs that take to skills and those that require a lot of skill," says Rob Spohr, a business professor at Montcalm Community College. "There're enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don't need to have much skill. It's that gap in between, and that's where the problem is.”
Julie Parks of Grand Rapids Community points to another key to luring Millennials into manufacturing: a work/life balance. While their parents were content to work long hours, young people value flexibility. “Overtime is not attractive to this generation. They really want to live their lives,” she says.
【解析】根据题干人名Jay 定位文中“They’re harder to find and they have job offers,”他们很难发现他们有工作邀请。harder对应选项 stiff(艰难地)。
【解析】根据题干人名Jason Stenquist对应文中“I love working with tools. I love creating,” he says.我爱与工具打交道，我喜欢创新，tool对应选项tool.
【解析】根据题干人名Birgit Klohs, 定位文中“remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession,”记住他们的爸爸妈妈都下岗了，他们归因于生产萧条。文中blame对应选项blame.
【解析】根据人名Rob Spohr,对应文中 The gap is between the jobs that take no skills and those that require a lot of skill,” says Rob Spohr, 工作之间的差距是那个不需要技能，而那些需要很多技能。文中skill对应选项skill(技能)。
【解析】题干问Julie的观点，对应文中“We’ve never had so much attention from manufacturers.”我从没有得到过这么多来自制造商的注意，attraction对应选项attract(吸引)